Title: comes from the Latin word 'scabies' - scabies, from which the leaves of one of the species of this plant supposedly helped. According to another version, from the word 'scabiosus' - rough, and is associated with a wrapper of rough, flowering leaves.
Scabiosa atropurpurea 'Chile Black'
Photo by Tatyana Shakhmanova
Description: the genus has about 100 species growing in temperate regions of Eurasia, mountains of East and South Africa. Some species stand out as an independent genus Korostavnik (Knautia):
Korostavnik field - Knautia arvensis = Scabiosa arvensis
Korostavnik Macedonian - Knautia macedonica = Scabiosa macedonica = Scabiosa lyrophylla = Scabiosa rumellica
Perennials, sometimes with a lignified base of stems, less often biennials and annuals. The stems are simple or branched, erect, strong, from 10 to 100 cm tall. The leaves are opposite, whole, dentate-lobed, cirrus-separated or cirrus-dissected. The flowers are collected in dense capitate inflorescences, oblate-spherical or spherical, located at the ends of long peduncles and surrounded by a wrapper of bracts. Corolla is funnel-shaped of five fused petals, marginal flowers in the inflorescence are larger. Against the background of the petals, bright anthers of long stamens stand out spectacularly. The fruit is an achene with an almost wheel-shaped, membranous crown, small, oval, light brown. In 1 g of 340-350 seeds, retaining germination for 3 years.
|Scabiosis pigeon - Scabiosa columbaria Links|
Mountain view, widespread in Western Europe, as well as in the west and southwest of the European part of Russia, in the Crimea, in the Caucasus. It grows singly or in groups of several plants in meadows, shrubbery slopes, among shrubs along the banks of streams, on fairly rich and moist soils, in isolated areas. Very rare relict species.
Scabiosa columbaria 'Pink Mist'
Biennial or perennial herbaceous plant 10-100 cm high. The stem is erect, pubescent in some places, slightly branched in the upper part. The leaves of the basal rosette are simple, ovate-oblong, crustacean or cirrus. Stem leaves pinnately or twice pinnate. The inflorescence is capitate, the bed is filmy. Calyx with setae 5-10 mm long, red-brown color. Corolla red-violet, marginal flowers more than others. It blooms from mid-July to the end of September.
The flowers in the inflorescence bloom gradually, and insects visiting them because of the nectar located in the corolla tube transfer pollen from the flower where the stamens have ripened to the flower where the pestle has matured. Self-pollination in this plant is impossible, since the stamens ripen much earlier than the pistil. It propagates by seeds that are easily carried by the wind and animals (the stiff and spiny cup of the flower remains with the fruit and easily clings to the fur). Honey plant.
|Star scabiosis - scabiosa stellata L.|
Homeland - Southern Europe.
The plant is annual. The stems are straight 15-45 cm tall. The leaves are opposite, the lower leaves are solid, serrated along the edge, and the upper ones are deeply divided. The flowers are pale blue, collected in the final, capitate inflorescences of a spherical shape on long, sturdy peduncles. It blooms from June to autumn. Bears fruit. The fruit is a white-pubescent achene with a large bell-shaped bract. Seeds retain viability for 2-3 years. In the photograph of the inflorescences of the variety 'Drumstick'.
Photo by Evgenia Maksimenko
|Caucasian scabiosis - Scabiosa caucasica Bieb.|
Distributed in the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Perennial plant, sometimes grown as an annual, 70-80 cm tall. The stems are straight, strong, slightly branched, pubescent. Basal leaves are linear-lanceolate, petiolate, slightly bluish, stem-sessile, cirrus-dissected. The flowers are small blue, blue, white, pink, dark purple, collected in capitate inflorescence up to 10 cm in diameter. Blooms in June-July 30-35 days. Fruits in August. In a culture since 1803. The photograph shows a white-flowered form.
Has highly decorative hybrid forms and varieties, characterized by the height of the bush and the color of inflorescences: '' BlauerAtlas' - flowers are blue-violet, 'Cleve Greaves' - the flowers are light purple, the inflorescences are very large, 'Miss Wilmotg ' - inflorescences are large, the flowers are pure white, 'Nachtfalter'- intense blue flowers,'Clive Greaves'- inflorescences are large-flowered, bluish, on high stems, 'Morheim Blue' - Inflorescences are densely purple.
Photo left Presnyakova L.V.
|Scabiosis dark purple - Scabiosa atropurpurea L.|
It comes from southern Europe.
The plant is annual or biennial. The stems are straight, branched, 30-100 cm tall, furrowed, green, rarely pubescent. The basal leaves are broad-toothed, coarse-toothed, stem-cirrus separate with oblong lobes. The flowers are small, white, pinkish, bluish, dark purple, collected in single, dense, elongated capitate inflorescences up to 7 cm in diameter, on long flexible peduncles. It blooms from July to October. Fruits in September. Seeds remain viable for up to 3 years. In culture since 1629.
It has numerous garden varieties and varieties, which are divided into several groups: tall - 60-100 cm bushy - 40-60 cm and undersized - up to 25 cm tall. The flowers of the main varieties are white, bright red, large, double. Examples of varieties: 'Blue Moon' - inflorescences are pale blue, 'Rose Cackade' - pink inflorescences, 'Monarch Cockade' - a mixture, large inflorescences, terry, of various colors.
Photos of EDSR.
Location: for a successful culture require a sunny location.
The soil: plots with fertile, light soil rich in humus. Caucasian scabiosis does not tolerate wet soils!
Photo by Vyacheslav Petukhin from the site "Nature of Baikal"
Photo by Kravchenko Kirill
Photo by Kravchenko Kirill
Photo by Vladimir Epiktetov
Care: the use of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers increases the brightness of the color of the flowers. Watering is moderate. Caucasian scabiosis in the middle lane for the winter requires light shelter with leaves.
Scabiosa caucasica 'Nachfalter'
Photo by Svetlana Voronina
Reproduction: annual species are propagated by sowing seeds in open ground in early May or for seedlings in a greenhouse in late March - early April. Shoots at a temperature of 16-18 degrees appear in stellate scabiosis on days 14-18, in the Caucasus - on 20-25, in dark purple - on 8-14 days). Seedlings dive and in early June planted in a permanent place, maintaining a distance between plants of 25-30 cm. Perennial species are propagated by sowing seeds and dividing the bush. When propagated by seeds, young plants bloom for 2-3 years. The division of the bush is done in early spring before the start of growth. At one place they can grow for at least 5 years.
Using: to cut, in groups, discounts, mixborders with such perennials as hosts, peons, short irises. Cut off keep decorative in water for 5-7 days.
Partners: Achillea, Anaphalis, Aster amellus, Aster pyrenaeus, Aster sedifolius, Oenothera missouriensis, Salvia nemorosa.
Natural species of scabiosis
The flowering of our perennial plant is long and plentiful (malva is also characterized by the same). In addition to a beautiful appearance, flowers have medicinal properties. It was believed that the plant has the power to cure scabies, because the literal translation of scabiosis is "scabies." All types of plants are unpretentious in care.
Mountain view of scabiosis. Propagated by self-seeding. Shrubs can be found along the banks of streams, in meadows, among shrubs. Pretty rare flower.
The flowering period of perennial or biennial pigeon scabiosis lasts from the beginning of summer to autumn. The long stalk of the plant reaches a height of more than a meter, is slightly pubescent and has branches up. The leaves are oblong or pinnately separate. The brownish-red or purple calyx has bristles and a length of 5 mm. The flowers are quite large.
During seed cultivation, the seeds of this scabiose are planted in the soil in May, and during seedling cultivation in March. The variety is resistant to temperature extremes, tolerates mild aridity, but does not tolerate waterlogged soil. Therefore, it must be grown on well-drained soil. The Japanese use flower leaves and roots for the preparation of treated potions.
The plant reaches a height of 60 cm. High upright stems of scabiosa are strewn with lavender or pale blue flowers, which bloom up to 8 cm in diameter. Flowering begins quite late, only at the end of summer and continues until late autumn. The pleasant smell of flowers attracts insects that pollinate flowers.
The view differs from all in that it has very fragrant snow-white, purple, blue and pink flowers. On the sinewy legs of a branchy plant, there are jagged vertical leaves reaching a length of 5 cm. The diameter of the flowers of scabiose reaches 2 cm. A neutral soil with normal acidity is suitable for growing. Distributed throughout southern Europe. Purple scabiosis refers to an annual plant, although there are perennial species. Thanks to its unusually beautiful flowers, it is liked by gardeners and gardeners and is used to decorate flowerbeds in a summer cottage. This scabiosis will not grow on alkaline soil. To reduce the alkaline level, you need to add a little lime.
Origin: Temperate Eurasia, East and South Asia
Humidity: Moderate humidity
Location: Sunny place
Soil: The plant needs a light, permeable and fertile soil with a high humus content and neutral acidity.
Pests and diseases: Fungal diseases, powdery mildew
Necessary work: Top dressing, pruning
Height of growth: 10-100 cm depending on the type
Seedling: In May, sown in open ground
Landing: After freezing
Flowering: From summer to autumn
Suitable for cutting Yes
There are about 100 species in the genus. Some of them are allocated in a separate genus Korostavnik (Knautia).
Annuals are easy to propagate by sowing seeds in open soil in May. But they only practice this in regions with a mild climate, in the middle lane it is better to resort to growing seedlings. When the seeds are sown, the soil is slightly moistened. You can cover them with a thin layer of compost. Thinning seedlings that are already well thinned out well. This method is also suitable for perennials.
Dividing the bush
So propagate perennial species. It is better to produce it in early spring, but in warm regions it can be divided in the autumn. The roots are very carefully dug up and divided into parts. The main thing here is not to damage them. Delenki planted in a permanent place and watered. The division of the roots rejuvenates the plant and stimulates its growth. The procedure can be performed every 4 years.
Diseases and pests Scabioza
Incorrect, excessive watering of scabiosis can lead to fungal diseases. If this happens, then watering is reduced, and the plant is treated with fungicides. Maybe she is sick and powdery mildew often provokes her by watering with cold water and cool weather. They fight the disease with a mullein solution, they spray the plant. Sulfur preparations also help.
Even a beginner grower can grow this scabiosis from seeds. This plant is completely unnecessarily any special conditions of detention. It also develops well on poor soil. Propagated by division of the bush. Small inflorescences, yellowish-cream color, give the plant a decorative effect.
With good care, scabiosis flowers grown from seeds adorn the flower bed from early spring to late autumn.
Sowing seeds in open ground
Seeds of annual scabiosis retain their qualities for a long time. With the onset of early spring, sown seeds of the flowers of scabiosis. In some regions, seeds can be sown in mid or even early April.
Before sowing scabiose seeds, it is necessary to moisten the earth. The seeds themselves cannot be deeply buried in the soil. After sowing, the seeds are covered with a layer of earth, and on top, it is recommended to put a small (5-10 mm.) Layer of compost. Scabiosis is a cold-resistant plant, so when sowing seeds in open ground, you should not worry because of night frosts.
Scabiose seedlings appear 1.5 weeks after planting seeds. After waiting for the plants to grow a little, the seedlings will become strong, it is necessary to thin out the planting, leaving only healthy specimens, and the frail ones need to be thrown away.
When and how to plant
Sowing seeds of perennial scabiosis for seedlings can be carried out from February or early March. We sow seeds only in fertile soil. After sowing, the soil is moistened, containers with plantings are covered with glass or polyethylene. Boxes with seedlings are kept in a warm room at a temperature of + 15 degrees. Every day you need to inspect the planting, ventilate, removing the film for about 1 hour. During this time, the condensate will evaporate and it will be possible to cover the boxes again.
On the 7th-9th day, when the first seedlings hatch, the glass must already be removed. It is recommended to moisten the soil from the spray, conducting fine spraying. When the plants get stronger and 2 real and strong leaves appear on them, the seedlings dive into separate cups or boxes. The distance between the plants in the row should be 5 cm.
Before planting seedlings in the ground, the seedlings are quenched. To do this, take out boxes with plants to the garden or balcony. At night, boxes of seedlings are again brought into the house.
Planting scabiose seedlings in open ground
Transplanting seedlings into a flower bed is recommended in late May and early June. For planting, select a well-lit area and prepare the soil. For scabiosis, neutral soil with good drainage (water drainage) is preferable. Before planting, it is recommended to fertilize the soil with manure: add 1 bucket of manure per 1 square of soil. We plant seedlings, trying to maintain a distance of 20 cm from each other.
Scabiosis should be watered moderately. Repeated watering should be carried out only after the surface layer has dried. If the soil is waterlogged, the root system will die. Scabiosis flowers grown from seeds prefer more arid places than too wet ones.
After watering the soil, as well as in rainy weather, when it rains heavily, the soil near the plants must be loosened. This will provide oxygen access to the roots and allow the plants to grow well.
How to deal with powdery mildew
A fairly stable plant, almost never exposed to pests, it is not prone to infectious and fungal diseases. Sometimes, with very moist soil, with thickening of plantings and poor ventilation, a plant may become infected with powdery mildew.
It is possible to understand that a plant is sick by leaves, with the appearance of plaque on them in the form of flour. The leaves are covered with specks, which become even transparent, as if they were damaged by any hot object. To combat the disease, Actellik and Topaz are recommended. Chemicals are used in accordance with the instructions, the dosage should not be exceeded. Before treatment, damaged foliage is removed from the plant. Residues are burned.
It should be noted that Actellik is a rather unpleasant insecticide. When spraying causes irritation of the upper respiratory tract. To reduce the effects of poison on the body, treatment is carried out in calm, calm weather or work in a respirator. After treatment with Topaz, whitish stains remain on the foliage.But when the drug is absorbed into the foliage, the stains disappear on their own.
Modest and charming meadow flower
Scabiosis is an extensive genus of the Voryankovye family, numbering about 100 species of perennial, biennial and annual herbaceous plants. The main habitat is the steppe zone, floodplain and subalpine meadows of Eurasia, and the South African prairies. Many representatives of scabiosis are relics of the Tertiary period, for example, protected species S. pigeon, calf.
In perennial plants, the rhizome is thick and short, ending with thin roots. Cirrus-dissected leaves are collected in a basal rosette, from the center of which one or several shoots emerge, at the end of which form flower buds. The height of the stems depending on the species varies in the range of 30-100 cm.
The inflorescence is very interesting. The round head with tubular flowers is surrounded by large wavy petals reaching a diameter of 10 cm. The bud opens in two stages - first the outer corolla, then the core. The color palette of scabiosis is diverse - light blue, pale yellow, cream, light purple are inherent in natural species, decorative annual varieties differ in saturated shades - purple, intense blue, purple.
Advice! When determining which flowers can be used to plant scabiosis in a flower bed, select early-flowering peonies, irises, leafy-decorative hosts, begonias in the neighbors. As partners, modest asters, chamomiles, anaphalis, bright salvia, evening primrose, and monard are suitable.
Despite extensive family ties across the planet, only a few of the most interesting and decorative types of scabiosis have been introduced into the culture. It was they who gave the genetic material for breeding garden forms of culture.
- Caucasian scabiosis is a textbook representative of the genus, long and firmly established in our gardens. This is a classic perennial with a height of 50-60 cm. It forms a lush bush, at the peak of flowering, at the same time blossoming up to 30 white, cream, light ocher flowers - it is not a shame to plant such a thing on the front flower bed! Served as the basis of numerous varieties and hybrids with intense blue, violet, purple color. A distinctive feature is a long, over 40 days, flowering period. Bush of perennial Caucasian scabiosis in bloom
- Japanese scabiosis is a perennial originating from the islands of the Japanese archipelago. It is a cold-resistant crop growing on sunny mountain slopes and meadows. In gardens, it is often cultivated as a two-year-old plant. It forms a high (up to 90 cm), sparsely branched bush. Inflorescences are small, round-convex with protruding stamens similar to pinheads. Garden forms are distinguished by a variety of colors. Japanese look with flowers similar to needle pads
- Purple scabiosis is grown as a two-year or annual plant - planted in early spring, it will bloom in the same year, in early summer - the next season. The species is represented by a large number of varieties and hybrids, among which there are tall (up to 1 m), bushy (50-60 cm) and low-growing (25-30 cm) groups, with ordinary and double inflorescences. The color palette is diverse - from pale pink and bluish to crimson and dark purple. Terry inflorescences of purple colors are spectacular in the "bouquet" flower garden
- Scabiosis is pale yellow - one of the most unpretentious and cold-resistant natural species. The bush is almost a meter high covered with numerous heads of a very delicate yellowish tint. Summer flower is characterized by long flowering until mid-autumn and a pleasant aroma. Suitable as a background decorative culture for bright spectacular colors. Scabiosis is pale yellow in nature
- Pigeon scabiosis is a European relict species found on floodplain meadows, mountain slopes, along river banks. Perennial plant, which is often cultivated as a biennial. The flower heads on long stems are not very large, but of an interesting red-violet color, bloom gradually - from the edges to the middle. Flowering period - 1.5 months starting in mid-July.
Garden forms and varieties
Based on the natural species of scabiosis, numerous varieties with improved characteristics have been bred - larger inflorescences, intense color, and long flowering. The most fruitful was the work of breeders with the following species.
- Highly decorative varieties of blue-violet shades originated from Caucasian scabiosis - Blauer Atlas, Clive Grives, Morheim Blue, Nachtftal. Bright representatives of scabiosis of this group are Miss Wilmotg and Alba varieties with large white flowers.
- On the basis of Japanese scabiosis, beautiful curb perennials of the Ritz, Romance, Blue Diamond varieties are derived.
- Scabiosis purpurea has numerous varieties - varieties are distinguished by a saturated color and large terry inflorescences. Popular among gardeners are the Douglas, Dessert, Scarlet, Blue Mon, Rosa Cascade varieties.
- Pigeon scabiosis in the culture is represented by the popular Pink Mist variety, which, due to its low compact bush, is widely in demand as a perennial border plant.
It is interesting! Delicate touching flowers florists like to include in the composition of wedding bouquets. Star scabiosis (stellate), varieties with soft lilac, cream and white flowers are especially popular.
Perhaps the only inexorable requirement that scabiosis has is a sunny place to plant, preferably on a hill, so that there is no flooding or the proximity of groundwater. Like most garden plants, he loves loose, fertile soil, but he does not wither on sparse soil, except that the flowers will not be so large and bright.
Planting an annual crop
Annual scabiosis is most often bred by growing from seeds by sowing in open ground. They do this simultaneously with other pilots, tentatively in late April - early May. If you are confident in the germination of seeds, they can be sown immediately at a distance of 25-30 cm, but experienced flower growers recommend sowing denser, and then break through or plant. It takes about three months for the plant to germinate, grow green mass, and forge flower stalks, so with this method of planting, flowering will occur somewhere in the second half of July and will last until mid-autumn.
To bring flowering closer, they practice growing scabiosis for seedlings. Sowing in this case is carried out in closed ground in March. In a container with light and moist soil, consisting of peat, turf soil and sand (perlite, vermiculite), seeds are sown to a depth of not more than 0.5 cm, closed with a plastic cover (glass, polyethylene). In the closed position, the container is until the seeds are bite, it is only occasionally necessary to open it for ventilation. When 2 real leaves appear at the seedlings, the seedlings are dived into individual containers in which they will be located before planting.
Perennial scabiosis is also grown by seed, through seedlings, but the vegetative method is also used - by dividing the bush. When propagated by seeds, the culture will bloom only in the second year, if you grow good strong seedlings, you can achieve flowering already in the current season.
In early spring, the perennial bush can be divided into parts so that in each fragment there is a piece of rhizome and at least three buds. Delenki planted in a permanent place at a distance of 25-30 cm
Scabiosis after planting in one place can grow up to 5 years and requires virtually no care. Watering is needed only in dry weather and then not specifically, but for a company with other colors.
Experts recommend during the budding period to feed plantings with phosphorus-potash or complex fertilizers - this will make the flowers larger and brighter.
In cold regions, the wintering rhizome of the crop is covered with fallen leaves, straw to protect it from freezing.