Animal feed requirement different depending on age, weight, productivity and individual characteristics of it, as well as on the conditions of detention and use. The need of the animal is characterized by the quantity and quality of nutrients necessary for the animal in a given physiological state and use.
The need of animals is determined by the total nutritional value expressed in feed units, digestible protein, minerals, in their correct ratio and in vitamins. High animal productivity and rational use of feed is possible only when regulating the quantity and quality of feed given in relation to the needs of animals, i.e.with normalized feeding.
Feed norms indicate how many different nutrients, minerals and vitamins animals of different weights and ages need to be given in order to get one or another productivity from them. Feed standards cannot, however, be understood as recipes for widespread use - they should be considered only the basis for the organization of proper feeding of animals, depending on the production tasks of the farm, the conditions for keeping the norm must be reviewed. In the economy on the basis of norms are feed rations.
When compiling feed diet feedingit is necessary to take into account the animal's need for nutrients, feed reserves on the farm, their quality and cost, animal welfare conditions, their individual characteristics, physiological state - productivity, etc.
Normalized feeding is a serious factor in increasing the productivity of animals and reducing the cost of production. As an example of uniform feeding standards for dairy cows, the norms recommended by Professor I. S. Popov for cows with milk yield from 2,000 to 4,000 and from 5,000 to 8,000 kg per year are attached.
With an annual milk yield of 2,000-4,000 kg per 1 feed unit, digestible protein of 85-95 g at the beginning of lactation and 75-80 g at the end is required, with an milk yield of 5,000-8,000 kg, 100-110 g on average per lactation. Calcium needs 5-7 g, phosphorus 4-4.5 g per 1 feed unit, sodium chloride 5 g per 100 kg of live weight and 2 g for every kilogram of milk.
When compiling feed rations, the following key points should be considered:
- Diet should be made up of feeds corresponding to the nature and taste of animals, and feed should be fed in such quantities and proportions that would not have a harmful effect on animal health and product quality.
- Fodder dachas, both in volume and in the content of dry matter in them, must correspond to the capacity of the digestive tract and its ability to digest feed and absorb nutrients. Insufficient filling of the digestive canal or its excessive overflow adversely affects its motor and secretory activity, and therefore, the digestion of feed and the absorption of nutrients and sometimes the general condition of animals.
- Feed rations should be composed of a variety of feeds, eaten with great appetite and have favorable dietary properties. When feeding highly productive cows this is especially necessary to take into account, since the appetite of such animals must always be maintained at a high level. In diets consisting of a variety of good feeds, the biological usefulness of the protein contained in them will be higher, which is especially important when growing young animals and for highly dairy cows.
- Feed diets should contain a sufficient amount of minerals and vitamins.
- Feed rations should be prepared in accordance with the feed available on the farm.
- Depending on the quality of the feeds fed and the type of animals to which the feeds are intended, they must be prepared accordingly (grinding, steaming straw, grinding, yeasting, grain malting, etc.). When compiling diets, these considerations and feeding standards for dairy cows should be taken into account.
And finally, a very useful table:
The content of mineral and nutrients in 1 kg of various feeds in mg:
Normalized feeding of poultry, feed conversion. The structure and nutritional value of rations for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, ducks and geese to ensure egg and meat productivity. Influence of feeding conditions on the quality of food eggs.
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The basics of feeding poultry
1. The basics of normalized bird feeding
Normalized poultry feeding is a set of measures aimed at the complete satisfaction of poultry in metabolic energy, nutritious, biologically active, mineral substances to ensure high egg and meat productivity while maintaining normal physiological and reproductive functions.
Feed conversion is an indicator of the effectiveness of the use of feed nutrients in egg and meat poultry farming.
Increasing feed conversion is currently possible due to targeted selection of birds, improving the technology of raising and keeping birds, feeding in accordance with the needs for metabolic energy and nutrients, stimulating growth in the starting period, improving the quality of feed and granulation.
The standardized poultry feeding system includes:
- rational use of feed,
- cheapening the cost of feed and its processing,
- increase feed conversion or reduce feed costs per unit of poultry production (10 eggs and 1 kg. live weight).
Elements of normalized poultry feeding:
- selection of feed,
- feeding rates by type, productivity, age of the bird (g / goal / day),
- type of feeding (dry, combined),
- diet structure (ratio of feed components),
- the physical structure of the feed (placer, granules, pellets from granules),
- feeding technique (method and frequency of feeding),
- control of the usefulness and effectiveness of feeding (analysis of feed quality, indicators of egg and meat productivity).
bird ration ration productivity
The basis of industrial poultry farming is the use of dry, full-feed, balanced in terms of exchange energy and basic nutrients, feed.
In order to prevent poultry diseases, produce fully-fledged and veterinarily safe poultry products and protect the population from diseases common to humans and poultry, feed and animal feed must meet the relevant requirements of GOST 18221-99 “Compound feeds for poultry” (introduction date 2001- 07-01). It applies to full feed for young and adult chickens, geese, ducks, turkeys and broilers.
In feedstuffs, according to GOST, the grinding size is normalized, the minimum metabolic energy content is 100 g of feed in MJ and kcal, the mass fraction (%) of crude protein, crude fiber, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, lysine, methionine and cystine (in total) and ash, insoluble in hydrochloric acid, for young and adult birds of different.
According to GOST, complete feed for poultry must meet the following requirements:
- made from refined and ground raw materials,
- made according to recipes based on the recommendations of VNITIP, regulatory documents on crosses, etc.,
- Approved by the head of the enterprise or the customer in the prescribed manner.
When calculating compound feed recipes for poultry in modern conditions, it is relevant:
- to reduce the share of corn, soybean meal, fishmeal through the wider use of wheat, barley, triticale, peas, sunflower, rapeseed, sorghum and their processed products, as well as meat and bone meal, feather meal and food waste,
- the inclusion of targeted protein-vitamin-mineral concentrates (BVMK) and biologically active substances (BAS).
2. Rationing of metabolic energy and nutrients in animal feed
Rationing of exchange energy (OE)
Poultry productivity is 40-50% determined by the intake of energy in its body, and its lack is often the most likely cause of increased feed consumption and low productivity compared to other nutrients.
Consumption of OE compound feed in the poultry: costs of maintaining life, costs of synthesis, transport and deposition of substances in the egg and meat, in fact, the energy deposited in the product (the energy of chemical bonds in protein and lipid molecules).
The intensity of MA expenditures for maintaining life is highest at an early age (up to 50% of the daily norm).
The amount of MA spent on the increase in live weight in young animals is 7-8 kcal, in adults -1.5-3.0 kcal.
In general, from broilers, it is deposited in meat from 27 to 32, in chickens in egg mass - from 22 to 24% of MA.
The main sources of MA for poultry are: grain crops - wheat, barley, oats, corn, rye, triticale, rice, millet, sorghum amaranth, grain processing products - bran, flour meal, corn germ, corn section, corn bran with endosperm, corn, corn gluten, oilcake and meal, bard dry beer, distillery dry alcohol, vegetable oils - sunflower, rapeseed, soybean, linseed, fus and phosphatides sunflower, palm ("Profat" - protected feed fat in dry form, safe "trans pleasing "firm fat" Schils "(Holland, contains 84% fat, 9% calcium, 7,200 CSA / kg metabolizable energy.), animal fat - bird, fish, beef, pork.
To increase the energy use (%) of feed is possible in the following ways:
collapse - barley by 7.5, oats by 14.8, millet by 7.1, sunflower seeds by 7.3%,
granulation - wheat, barley, oats, animal feed by 2.0-3.2%,
expansion - compound feed by 2.0-3.5%,
extrusion - barley by 2.3, soybean by 12.5, feed by 2.3-2.5%,
the addition of enzymes - grain and industrial crops by 3.0-5.5, feed by 1.5-3.5%.
LLC Agrokormservis plus offers goods from this group.
Avizim 1200 is an enzyme (multi-enzyme) preparation used in feeding poultry with diets with a large (more than 30%) content of wheat and barley. Increases the digestibility of complex non-starchy polysaccharides by 6-10%, which makes it possible to reduce the cost of rations. The input rate of 0.4-1 kg per 1 ton of feed (40-100 gr per 100 kg).
Olzime Vegpro is a multi-enzyme enzyme preparation for increasing the digestibility of protein by 7-12%, lipids, non-starchy polysaccharides and fiber in soy, sunflower, peas and canola. Allows you to use cheap protein feed, thereby reducing the cost of rations. The input rate is 0.5-1 kg per 1 ton. Or 50-100 g per 100 kg of feed with stepwise mixing.
Econase VP is an enzyme preparation analogous to Avizim. It is used in a dose of 0.8-1.5 kg per 1 ton of feed.
Rationing of crude protein and amino acids.
The optimal level of MA in the diet is the most important factor determining the consumption and effective use of protein and amino acids by the bird.
The organism of poultry is able to synthesize about 10 of the 20 amino acids. 40-45% of the needs of the bird are provided by the irreplaceable and 55-60% - by the replaceable amino acids. The protein requirement of the bird is actually the amino acid requirement.
The level, availability and ratio of essential amino acids (lysine, methionine with cystine, tryptophan) have a decisive influence on protein synthesis in the body of a bird.
Theoretically established and experimentally proved the following distribution of requirements for crude protein (amino acids):
- to maintain the life of laying hens, 1.56 g of protein or 250 mg of nitrogen, 0.05 g of lysine and 0.15 g of sulfur-containing amino acids are required per 1 kg of live weight
- for a gain of 1 kg of live weight of broilers 0.45 g of feed protein, 0.02 g of lysine and 0.01 g of sulfur-containing amino acids,
- The biosynthesis of 1 g of egg mass requires 138.5 mg of feed protein or 120 mg of digested protein.
The richest sources of essential amino acids are animal feed and some plant-based feed: animal feed - fish meal, meat and bone meal, meat feather, meat, blood, bone, keratin, feather flour ammonia hydrolysis extruded, leguminous crops - fodder lupins, fodder beans, vetch spring , chickpeas, rank, lentils, peas, inactivated soya groats, extruded soya full-fat, soya toasted, legumes and meal processing products seeds, pea fodder, industrial crops - sunflower seeds with husk, winter rape, spring rape (canola), oil flax, safflower, peanuts, tapioca, industrial crop products - sunflower cake and meal, cotton cake, linen, peanut, coriander , rapeseed canola, cottonseed meal, rapeseed, safflower, sesame, linen, peanut, coriander, molasses (waste from beet production), milk processing products - skimmed milk powder, products of microbiological synthesis - fodder yeast classical (alcohol distillery), hydrolysis (wood waste), BVK (oil paraffins), herbal food, artificially dried - alfalfa grass meal, pea-oat mix, clover leaf mass, algae.
LLC Agrokormservis plus offers dairy products of the Schils company (Holland).
ZTsM "Evrolak" (varieties "LIGHT", "STANDARD", "TURBO") - substitutes for whole milk with an immunostimulation system. Ingredients: 75-78% dairy products, 3-4% vegetable-protein mixture, 10-15% fats, 1% starch and 4-5% vitamins and mineral supplements. They contain 20-21% crude protein, 12-20% fat, 0.3-1% fiber, 10-10.5% ash, 40% lactose.
ZOM "Protilak" - an easily digestible substitute for low-fat Ingredients: 70% dairy products, 30% vegetable-protein mixture, 0.5% starch. Contains 39% crude protein, 1.5% fat, 2% fiber, 43% carbohydrates, including 19% lactose. Balanced by amino acids. Enriched with a complex of vitamins and minerals. It mixes well with any feed. Input standards for poultry - up to 5%.
Given the ever-increasing prices of animal feeds, most compound feed recipes are made exclusively from vegetable feeds. At the same time, the biological value of vegetable proteins is achieved by enriching them with synthetic amino acids.
Synthetic amino acids are constantly included in the list of products offered by LLC Agrokormservis plus.
Feed lysine (lysine monochlorohydrate, availability 98%) is necessary for the growth and development of poultry (the formation of skeletal tissues and enzymes), calcium absorption and plumage formation. Increases the digestibility of feed nutrients. It is introduced into the diet depending on the needs of the bird, as well as the composition of the diet in a dose of 0.5-1.5% of the amount of feed.
Feed methionine (DL-methionine, availability 99%), is involved in many metabolic processes, especially associated with the formation of plumage and egg production in birds, improves feed absorption. It is introduced into the diet depending on the needs of different groups of birds and the composition of the diet in a dose of 0.5-2% of the amount of feed.
Threonine (L-threonine availability 98%), promotes skeletal muscle growth, is part of immune proteins and digestive enzymes, and regulates feed intake. The input rate of 0.5% of the amount of feed.
Rationing of calcium and phosphorus.
The main components of compound feeds do not satisfy the poultry needs for calcium, phosphorus and sodium, therefore they must be modified with appropriate additives: sodium chloride, defluorized feed phosphate, mono-, di-, tricalcium phosphate, limestone flour, baking soda, cockleshell, feed chalk, defluorinated phosphate , zeolites, bentonites.
Chalk feed 75-85% consists of calcium. It is acquired in an organism with participation of phosphorus. The normal ratio of calcium to phosphorus for young animals is 2: 1, for laying hens 3: 1. It is introduced according to the needs of animals and the composition of the feed in a dose of 0.5-3.0% of the amount of feed.
Shell is a feed source of calcium for the formation of the skeleton and shell of eggs. The digestion effect is improved in combination with tricalcium phosphate. The input rate for young animals is 1.0-1.2%, for laying hens up to 7-9% of the amount of feed. The shell can be given in separate feeders for free feeding.
In a shell, it is necessary to control the content of calcium (not less than 35%), magnesium, fluorine, arsenic, lead and sand (not more than 5%).
Calcium absorption is not uniform as the bird grows and develops: in chickens from 2 to 4 months. - 25%, from 6 to 12 months. - 60%. Therefore, growing young birds are especially in need of calcium and phosphorus, since its selection for precocity has led to the fact that the development of the skeleton lags behind the formation of muscle tissue. In this regard, at an early age, young birds develop leg anomalies of an infectious etiology - chondrodystrophy, tibia dyschondroplasia, rickets.
During the laying period, the digestibility of calcium in chickens is 60-70%, and during molting 29-32%.
The rate of calcium in the diet for laying hens depends on the direction of productivity of the bird (egg or meat crosses), the intensity of egg production and daily feed intake. So, at an egg production rate of 80 and 90%, hens of egg crosses should receive compound feeds with a calcium content of 3.4 and 3.7%, respectively, and meat - 3.3 and 3.7%.
The main source of digestible phosphorus for poultry is animal feed, the deficit of which is increasing. Therefore, it is recommended to introduce fodder calcium defluorinated phosphates into diets. At the same time, the availability of phosphorus in feeds is arranged in the following order: monocalcium and dicalcium phosphates - 100%, fish meal - 98, bone meal - 96, meat and bone meal - 90, tricalcium phosphate - 86%, meal, meal, cereals - 30%.
Tricalcium phosphate mixes well with other feeds. The use of tricalcium phosphate improves the absorption of calcium from chalk by 34%, from shell - by 20%. The input rate is 0.5-2% of the amount of feed.
In connection with the characteristics of metabolism, the ratio of calcium to phosphorus in compound feed is important. The most physiologically justified and confirmed by world and domestic production experience is the following Ca: P ratio: egg repair young 2: 1, broilers 1.4-1.7: 1, egg chickens with a spacing of 3: 1, during laying 5-6: 1 .
Rationing of biologically active substances.
Biologically active substances - vitamins A, D3, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B4 (choline chloride), B5 (PP), B6, Sun, N (biotin), chlorides or sulfates of trace elements manganese, zinc, iron, copper, cobalt, iodine, selenium, enzymes. Vitamins and minerals are vital substances for agricultural production. birds. With their lack of metabolism, resistance to disease is reduced, growth is slowed, and reproductive quality is worsened.
The need for poultry in vitamins and trace elements due to the components of the feed is only partially met, therefore they are introduced additionally in a guaranteed amount separately, in the form of mixtures (blends) and premixes.
Premixes are homogeneous mixtures of biologically active substances (vitamins, micro and macro elements, antioxidants, antimicrobials, amino acids, flavors, enzymes) in optimal amounts and proportions with excipients. They are used to prevent deficiency of vitamins and microelements, increase digestibility of feed, fecundity and viability of poultry, and improve the quality of eggs and meat.
Growth factors, prebiotics, probiotics, etc. also belong to the group of biologically active substances.
The following are BAS from the list of products of LLC Agrokormservis plus.
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) made in China. It is used to increase vitality (immunity) and stimulate appetite, as an anti-stress and restorative agent. The rate of entry: for young animals (required in the first days after hatching) and adult birds of all species of 15-20 g per 100 kg. feed for 3-5 days
Rex Vital amino acids - a water-soluble preparation of the most important for agricultural birds of 8 vitamins and 18 amino acids in an easily digestible form. It is used as a restorative and anti-stress agent. The input rate for 3-7 days: poultry - 3 g per 10 l of water or 7.5 g per 10 kg of feed.
PAC (in assortment) - manufactured by Vitasol (Borovsk, Kaluga Region). The input rate is 1% of the feed weight as directed.
Acid-Lac is an acidity regulator made from natural ingredients (6 organic acids). Reduces the acidity of the contents of the stomach, promotes the growth of lactic acid bacteria, inhibits the growth of pathogenic microflora, improves the digestibility of proteins, improves the growth and development of animals. Apply for poultry 2-3 kg / 1 ton (200-300 g / 100 kg of feed).
Sel-Plex is a source of organic selenium for poultry. Availability is 2 times higher and toxicity is 3 times lower than sodium selenite. Antioxidant. It normalizes the metabolism, increases the fertilization of eggs and the hatching of young animals, prolongs the shelf life of eggs, meat and feed. The input rate is from 100 to 300 grams per 1 ton (10-30 g / 100 kg).
"ORO-Yellow" (an analogue of "Oro-Glo") is a natural preparation for increasing the content of carotenoids in eggs and poultry. A multicomponent preparation in the form of a powder of calendula flowers, yellow xanthophylls stabilized by an antioxidant. Increases hatchability of eggs by 3-5%. Increases the immunity of birds. Makes the product more attractive to customers - improves the color of the yolk of eggs and the skin of carcasses of birds. Input rate: for laying hens of 200-600 g / t (20-60 g / 100 kg), poultry for fattening for 14 days before slaughter 400-800 g / t (40-80 g / 100 kg) of feed.
Feed concentrates (BVMK) of WAFI company (Holland) consist of high-quality fish meal (protein content of at least 70%), soybean meal and vitamin-mineral premix, differ in the ratio of initial raw materials and concentration (5 and 10%), not contain genetically modified foods (GMOs).
"Vacon E", "Leykon" - universal concentrates for feeding animals and birds.
BVMK of this series are added to feed for grain, meal, cake and mineral additives depending on the type, age, direction of productivity of poultry or animals, set and nutritional value of the feed in a dose of 5 to 12% ten percent concentrate or 4-7% five percent concentrate by step mixing.
Norms of energy and nutrients in compound feed
They depend on the bird’s genotype, its age, live weight, egg production level, conditions of feeding and feeding technology and are calculated in 100 g in percent or grams and the exchange energy in kilocalories and kilojoules.
"Norms for the content of MA and nutrients in the diets of chickens and other types of agricultural products poultry ”and“ Approximate norms of feeding full-ration balanced compound feeds ”are regularly updated in connection with the achievements of biological science and are given in recommendations, instructions of breeding farms and developers of various forms of poultry (breed, line, cross). They are necessary for the current and planned calculation of feed requirements for any time period for different production (technological) groups of poultry and workshops of a poultry farm.
With a decrease in the consumption of feed by poultry for any reason (hot season, illness), to maintain the achieved level of productivity, one should increase the nutritional value of the diet, as to satisfy the need for nutrients when eating a large amount of feed, the bird will not be able to.
Attempts to reduce the nutritional value of compound feeds (feed mixtures) on the grounds of cost reduction worsen the efficiency of production in egg poultry farming in many ways:
- reduced productivity of meat young animals and laying hens, egg mass,
- the conversion of compound feeds is deteriorating,
- the bird is late from its genetic potential reaches the slaughter mass, reaches the peak of egg productivity and quickly loses it,
- the growing period of young animals increases and the term of productive use of laying hens is reduced,
- cannibalism (pecking) of the bird is manifested,
- the state of the body’s immune system worsens, its safety decreases due to death and forced rejection,
- increases the consumption of expensive biologically active substances,
- increases the cost of transporting feed and recycling litter,
- In general, the profitability of production decreases.
3. The structure of animal feed
The chemical composition and nutritional value of various feed products for poultry are given in specialized reference books. However, in every poultry farm it is recommended to conduct regular laboratory analyzes of raw materials and finished feeds due to the objective diversity due to the characteristics of the variety, the level of agricultural technology, weather conditions, processing and storage technology.
At the same time, organoleptic control of feed raw materials is important. The appearance, color and smell of compound feeds for poultry should correspond to a set of components without signs of mold and putrefactive odor.
On the basis of numerous studies and extensive industrial experience in egg and meat poultry farming, the “Recommended structure of full-feed compound feeds for agricultural poultry” has been developed. So, the basis of poultry feeding rations is made up of grain and leguminous crops (55-80%). Protein feeds of plant origin account for 5 to 20%, and animal origin - 2-8%. Mineral feed at the level of 7-9% is introduced into mixed feeds of laying hens and 1-2% of young birds of all species.
4. Control and reduction of feed toxicity
All feed products in their influence are characterized not only by positive but also by negative factors. A modern bird is like a new generation car that cannot be refueled with poor quality gasoline. Therefore, it is precisely the feeding factors that can cause various diseases of the bird:
- uric acid diathesis and gout,
- diseases of the digestive system (cuticulitis, enteritis),
- hypo- and hyperevitaminosis, embryotoxicosis,
- weakness and defects of the skeleton,
- decreased appetite until the complete rejection of feed,
- fatty infiltration and fatty degeneration of the liver,
Anti-nutritional substances of certain types of feed and their MPC for poultry, which must be controlled:
* feed - hydrocyanic acid 10 mg / kg,
* Soybean processed products - trypsin inhibitor by urease activity 0.15-0.20 units pH at a protein solubility of 78-83%,
* meal and sunflower meal - chlorogenic acid 1%,
* meal and rapeseed cake - mustard oil 0.05%,
* Sorghum - tannins 0.4%
* flax - hydrocyanic acid 250 mg / kg.
During the operation of poultry of modern crosses with a high metabolic rate, increased veterinary and sanitary requirements for the quality of feed and drinking water should be presented.
To establish the degree of feed toxicity, biological objects (test organisms) are used in the laboratory: rabbits, white mice, guppy fish, ciliates of paramecium, colpoda, stylonichia, ciliates).
When establishing low toxicity, it is possible to use targeted drugs from the set of LLC Agrokormservis plus.
"Mikosorb" is an adsorbent of mycotoxins in feed. It is a complex of natural components extracted from yeast. It has an effect in the digestive tract of birds. It does not bind vitamins and minerals. Thermostable. It is highly effective - 500 grams of the drug disinfect the surface of the feed with an area of 1 ha. Preventing the negative effects of mycotoxins on the body, increases their safety, growth rate, meat and egg productivity. Contraindications for use have not been established. The input rate is set depending on the degree of contamination of the feed: high - 1, medium - 0.6, low - 0.3 kg / t.
Sal-Carb is an antibacterial drug used for the disinfection of feed and equipment (storage bins, mixers, etc.) from the causative agents of salmonellosis, colibacteriosis, streptococcosis, etc. It is safe for personnel and poultry. It is used to prevent infection of feed at the rate of 1–2 kg / 1 t., For disinfection of feed - 4-5 kg per 1 t of feed, depending on the degree of infection, for disinfection of equipment - 0.5-2 kg per 10 m3.
Bio Mos is an antibacterial poultry productivity stimulator. It contains 30% protein (including 25% glucomannoprotein), mannanoligosaccharides secreted from the outer walls of yeast cells, 1.4-4.0% fat. It mixes well with other feeds. Improves growth rates, bird viability and feed conversion. It blocks intestinal colonization by pathogenic microflora and has a positive effect on the growth of lactic acid bacteria. The input standards are 0.5-1.0 kg / t. In case of unfavorable veterinary status of the herd, application rates should be increased by 2 times.
5. The role of water for poultry
Water is more important for the functioning of the body of the bird and metabolic processes than feed, since the body of the bird is on average 70% water. The main part of the water entering the body of the bird is drinking water (75-77%). 10-12% comes with food (normal feed humidity is not more than 13%). Part of the water (metabolic, metabolic) is formed during redox reactions in the body (8-10%).
The need of a bird for drinking water is determined by the biological and physiological characteristics of its body: type, age, level and direction of productivity, environmental conditions, dry matter and mineral salts in the feed, water quality. In general, drinking behavior is similar to fodder.
Factors affecting the increase in water consumption: age, increase in the intensity of metabolic processes, increase in live weight, increase in air temperature above 25 0С, feeding of feeds with a high content of potassium (soy).
The temperature of drinking water affects the state of the bird. When drinking with cold water, even at a comfortable temperature, growth and development, and therefore the weight gain in the bird, are reduced.
Optimum temperature (0С) of water for young and adult hens:
on days 8-14 - 28,
at 15-21 days - 26,
at 22-28 days - 24,
in the 29-35 day - 22,
A sign of a chronic lack of water in young animals is uric acid diathesis, in adult chickens - blueness and wrinkling of the crest, loss of appetite, intoxication, peritonitis.
High temperature bird feeding
In hyperthermia, it is recommended:
- transfer the feeding of the bird to the cold time of the day,
- increase the frequency of distribution of feed or apply blank starts feedline,
- use feed mixtures with a 10% increase in the level of nutrients and energy,
- increase the level of lysine by 20%, methionine + cystine by 17%, OE by 4%,
- introduce 2-5% fat into the diet
- use granular feed,
- introduce enzyme preparations into the feed,
- increase the norm of vitamin C with feed to 400 g / t or drink 1 g / l with water,
- introduce baking soda up to 2-4 kg / t,
- reduce the content of difficult to digest feed in the diet (barley),
- enter limestone and chalk in the form of grains,
- increase the potassium rate by 25-30%.
6. Monitoring the usefulness of feeding
Monitoring the live weight of the bird, feed intake, egg production rate, egg mass, monitoring the behavior of the bird allows specialists to timely adjust the nutritional value of diets.
Indicators of egg production of farm poultry: age of puberty (days) - achievement of 50% egg production (chickens - 120-180, turkeys - 200-250 days), age of achievement of peak egg production (days), peak height of egg production (%), gross egg collection (pcs), egg laying on the initial laying hen (pcs), egg laying on the average laying hen (pcs), egg laying intensity (%), feed consumption per 10 eggs (kg)
Quantitative indicators of poultry meat productivity: live weight (g), absolute increase in live weight (g), average daily gain (g), feed consumption (conversion) per 1 kg of poultry meat in live form, feed consumption (conversion) per 1 kg of live growth mass, slaughter yield (%), meat productivity index (EPEF) - according to the formula
preservation (%) x live weight (kg) x 100
slaughter age (days) x feed conversion (kg)
Poultry weighing rules:
- use scales with an error of 10-50 g.,
- weigh 1% of the livestock (at least 100 young animals, 50 adult adults) with random sampling or in control cages from different areas of the house,
- weigh young animals once a week in the morning before feeding, adults 1-2 times a month 4-6 hours after feeding or intensive egg laying,
Feeding the industrial herd of laying hens
Currently, in poultry farms of the Russian Federation, industrial hybrids of modern white and brown crosses are fed according to various schemes, depending on the change in rations.
Feeding programs for repairing young (RM) hens of egg crosses GPPZ Labinsky: 1-5 weeks. "Start", 6-7 weeks. "Growth", 8-16 weeks. "Development", 17 weeks. 5% EI (20 weeks) “Preliminaries”
The structure and nutritional value of diets for RM egg chickens with products of LLC Agrokormservis plus are given on the company's website
In the starting period (up to 7-10 days), chickens should receive feed mixtures with a stably high protein content (20-21%) and metabolic energy (290-295 kcal / 100 g), but low fiber and easily digestible mineral substances.
For starters (0-5 days), only high-quality ingredients are needed - extruded cereals, animal proteins, vegetable fats, organic minerals, vitamins and especially high doses of vitamin E.
In the period of 1-8 weeks, it is desirable to give food in the form of crumbs and small granules.
In the growing period, to control puberty, poultry in compound feeds reduce the levels of crude protein to 15-16% and metabolic energy to 260-255 kcal / 100 g, while increasing the content of crude fiber to 5.0-5.5%.
In the pre-laying phase, compound feeds with a higher level of SP (16%) and calcium (2.2%) are used, OE is in the range of 265-270 kcal / 100 g. A vitamin premix for laying hens must be introduced during this period. In addition, the daily feed rate is increased - on average by 5-7 g per week, in order to prepare the bird for the upcoming egg laying. During this period, reproductive organs develop normally in young women (normally cloocytes do not subsequently appear), a reserve of nutrients is created in the body.
When growing repair chickens, the indication of the transition from one diet to another in terms of the content of MA and nutrients is not age, but the uniformity of the bird in terms of live weight, development, health. Live weight should be at the normative level in all periods.
During the laying period, a two-phase chicken feeding program is used: - 21 weeks. (5% egg production) -45 weeks. the so-called "Early Productive" phase, 46 weeks. and older - Late Productive.
At 2-5% egg-laying intensity, the bird is transferred to the diet for laying hens, avoiding feed stress, therefore, when changing the diet, the ration ratio of the ration is 1 and 2 should be 100: 0%, 75: 25%, 50: 50%, 25: 75 %, 0: 100%.
In the 1st phase of oviposition, it is important to consider that birds continue to grow and some of the nutrients are used to build tissues.
For laying hens, it is advisable to use coarse-feed compound feeds (1.8-2.5 mm) or in the form of grits. Equally important is the good mixing of the feed components (95% uniformity) to prevent the separation of feed components and their selective consumption.
To form a shell, hens need to consume calcium daily. Its assimilation increases if at least two sources of this mineral are provided, one of which may be fine limestone, chalk, and the other a shell.
Recommended Calcium Source Fractions for Layers
Characteristics of feed and additives
To increase the productivity of chickens, turkeys, quails and all types of waterfowl, you need to look for a variety of feed additives: antibiotics, antioxidants, vitamins, trace elements salts. The main feeds are divided into the following groups:
- Cereals - these include cereals and legumes. This is a particularly nutritious feed, consisting of wheat, barley, oats, corn.
- Juicy - these are all kinds of vegetables and combined silage,
- Technical waste - food and grain processing industry,
- The group of animal feed - products of processing milk, fish, meat,
- Vitamin - dry grass meal made from the green mass of alfalfa and clover,
- Mineral - eggshell, limestone, crushed shell, wood ash, gravel.
You can put compound feed at number 7. This is a mixture in a certain proportion of all of the above poultry feed ingredients.
What feed the birds at the poultry farm
Among the townsfolk, there is an opinion that the rapid increase in poultry growth, which today can be bought in supermarkets, is explained by the fact that it is with growth hormones and antibiotics. It’s clear that it’s hard to believe that in 40-50 days the chicken gains weight of two kilograms, eating bran, grass or grain.
But such a statement is fundamentally wrong: for growing poultry on an industrial scale for meat, special meat breeds, lines, crosses are used, which at the genetic level have a high rate of muscle and bone growth, which also affects the rapid growth of chicken. And also for the industrial production of poultry meat breeds are selected whose representatives are able to process feed into the protein necessary for the body. Thus, in order to gain solid weight, such a bird will require much less time and food. That's all the features of feeding birds at the poultry farm with a daily menu.
In poultry farms, whole grain poultry is not fed during the growing period. Birds, especially broilers, need a kind of food, which there is a large selection of poultry farms.
The norms and diets of feeding poultry include:
- sunflower and soybean meal,
- feed yeast
- bone flour,
- additives: ordinary chalk, salt, vitamins.
That is, everything is the same as on a personal compound somewhere in the village, but ground, mixed and dried.
The diet of poultry must be made depending on its age and type, the grain in it is usually 75%. This component of the feed is easily digested in crushed and whole form. It must be said that it is not required to give poultry well-processed grain, completely refined and well-sifted. The usual husk, in grain feed, contains many minerals that are required for the formation of feathers and the construction of the skeleton of a bird. For this reason, the bird can live in the villages without receiving almost any food, except for the usual husks from buckwheat, bran and simple oatmeal scalded with boiling water and possibly with the addition of rye flour. In poorly refined grains, weed seeds are often found, which poultry eats very well. Undoubtedly, the grain must be of high quality, which means that it is not burnt, not spoiled and not decayed, etc.
Mineral substances, their usual feeds are not enough for the poultry organism, and they eat shells and pebbles to grind the feed and as a mineral supplement. All bird lovers know that they are essential for birds. Shell and pebbles enter the muscular ventricle of poultry. In the bird’s stomach, where the pebbles are located, the food enters in a partially processed form. Such additives, swallowed by the bird, are partially processed in the stomach and have a beneficial effect on strengthening the skeleton. In poultry that feeds freely, up to 30-50 g of coarse sand and small stones can be found in the stomach.
Different foods have different effects on the body of poultry, barley, oats, millet, favorably affect the growth of meat, increase egg production, and buckwheat, corn and wheat - the creation of fat cells. If, for example, chickens who live in heat give these foods, then they will mainly eat millet, and at low temperatures, the same hens will be larger, eat wheat as food that warms better. Ripe berries, fresh vegetables and herbs do not have any nutritional characteristics, but they are very useful as a means of stimulating digestion and as a remedy for diseases.
Animal feed is nutritious, but keeping the bird on it is impossible. Animal feed is a very good help when feeding poultry. In warm time, the bird, which lives in the open, independently finds animal feed, but during the winter it will be nice to add waste to the diet and get it during slaughter. The resulting meat is boiled well, finely chopped and given 2-3 times in 7 days to poultry 30-40 g each. If you give it more, then as a result the bird will not, eat such food. Minor meat supplements stimulate sexual energy, and maintains the activity of the bird, as a result, have a beneficial effect on egg productivity.
Shredded bones also belong to animal feed, they improve egg laying, favorably affect the vigor and health of the bird. In addition, eggs from a bird to which crushed bones are added will be almost all fertilized and will give strong chickens.
As well as meat, fresh fish improves egg laying, such an additive is very useful for chickens and hens during molting, favorably affects feather growth and improves the body's vital functions. The optimal supplement for waterfowl that grows near a pond is fish. But it gives an unpleasant smell to poultry meat and eggs, for this reason, fish can be given raw only to a bird left for the tribe and young animals, it is undesirable for its chickens to lay eggs for sale or for food. Add chickens and hens fish, it is necessary to cook and well cleaned of bones, in crushed form, adding to the usual feed.