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Useful reference information for specialists in agriculture and agriculture.

Chinese painted pass

Keywords: Quail Chinese painted
Source (book):

The article was written on the basis of the book.Pheasants in nature and in zooculturesPublishing house "Zoovetkniga".

Quail Chinese painted (Coturnix chinensis) - the most elegant among quail. In shape and body shape, these birds are exact miniature copies of ordinary quail. In terms of lifestyle, they are also similar to other quail. Body length painted chinese quail is 12-13 cm. Habitat chinese painted quail - South Asia, Indonesia, East Australia and New Guinea. Birds settle on open grassy steppes. Flying, like all pheasants, prefer running. When in danger, they behave the same way as other members of the family: they hide in the grass and suddenly fly up in the most extreme case.

Chinese painted quail monogamous. They make a nest in the hole, which is lined with stems of dry grass. The female usually sits on the nest, but both parents take care of the brood. Clutch is 6-8 eggs. Incubation at painted chinese quail lasts 16-17 days.

Hatched quail dressed in black fluff, their sizes are comparable to the size of a bumblebee, but they grow very quickly. Two weeks after hatching, they can already fly, and in two months they become sexually mature. Of the feathers of adult coloring in young birds, the white feathers on the throat are the first to distinguish the males.

First chinese painted quail appeared in Europe in the middle of the 19th century. At the moment, these are ordinary cell and laboratory birds. There are several breeds and color variations: white, fawn, silver. Optimal form of content chinese painted quail are enclosures with an area of ​​one and a half square meters. Such an area will make it possible to simulate a natural landscape in which birds feel better, are less susceptible to stress and breed well.

In terms of feeding chinese painted quail unpretentious. They are given cereal feed, common for caged birds, flour worms, bloodworms, hamarus, ants, and ant eggs. It is recommended to give in small quantities fish and minced meat, hard-boiled chicken and quail eggs, as well as young greens: nettle, woodlice, and walnut. In winter, young greens can be replaced with sprouted grain or give the shoots of indoor plants to birds. For this, for example, tradescantia is suitable. With proper care and feeding, life expectancy chinese painted quail in captivity can be up to 8-10 years.

Wildlife

Chinese painted quail, part of the pheasant family, is often found under the name Blue Quail. He got a middle name due to his unique color.

Chinese painted quail

Accustomed to the wild, Chinese quail is able to live in a domestic poultry house, but at the same time, adequate conditions for Chinese quail should be provided so that birds can lay eggs and breed.

Regardless of the fact that the Chinese painted quail is small, do not underestimate the area required for their maintenance. The most optimal sizes, allowing you to keep them comfortable, will be the base of the cells and aviaries 2 * 2 meters, since the quail does not stay in pairs, but prefer to live in groups.

When keeping quails in the premises, additive poles and additional branches are not required, since these birds fly extremely rarely, preferring to move more on the ground.

As already mentioned, the habitat of the painted quail is quite extensive. In Africa, single specimens are found. They mainly live in the mountains at an altitude of about 1800 m above sea level. In some African countries, for example, in Nigeria, Chinese quails only nest in the rainy season, then fly away to other areas. In Asia and Australia, the number of birds is greater.

Lives painted quail in the steppe zone with dense grass. He makes paths in the grass that resemble burrows or tunnels. Birds are monogamous, live in pairs throughout their lives. The male takes care of the female very touching. He never begins to eat himself until he shares his food with his girlfriend. The quail eats bugs, worms, flies, seeds of plants.

During the mating season, the males issue a long three-syllable whistle. It can be heard for several kilometers. The nest is made only by the female. She lays from 4 to 10 testicles, rarely - 12-14 pieces. She incubates them for 14-16 days. At this time, the male of the painted quail takes care of the female, brings her food.

Chicks are born fully formed and grow quickly. Initially, they resemble, as can be judged by the photo, small striped bumblebees. After 2 weeks, they already fly, and after 2-3 months they become sexually mature. In one season, a couple can set aside 2-3 masonry. Their number directly depends on the quality and quantity of food obtained.

What is this breed

Chinese painted quail is one of the smallest of all types of quail. Their popularity among poultry farmers is due to their beautiful appearance. They are unpretentious when in captivity. Next, we consider in more detail the facts about the Chinese painted quail.

The spread of Chinese painted quail is observed in the territory from Southeast Asia to Australia. Often the breed is also found in Africa. The largest congestion is observed in the following countries:

Directly in China, the origin of this breed has long been known. Inhabitants of the Middle Kingdom often used quail as an ornamental bird. The European population learned about the painted quail in the seventeenth century. The bird is also widespread among Europeans. Currently, it is kept in the form of an ornamental breed in various parts of the world.

The painted quail habitat in China is a densely growing grass with a high level of humidity. Typically, birds live in pairs. Nests are built using dry foliage and grass, directly on the ground cover. At the same time, only the female is engaged in its arrangement. The male of the Chinese quail helps the female to breed.

He gets food and feeds the female, which sits on the eggs in the nest. Also, the male is engaged in protecting the installation site of the nest from enemy attacks. After hatching the chicks from the eggshell, the male is included in the process of caring for the babies, including walking them together with the female.

The family of Chinese painted quail is distinguished by the small size of the birds. The length of the body is in the range from 12 to 14 centimeters, excluding the size of the tail. It is limited to 3.5 centimeters. Adult weight ranges from 40 to 75 grams.

Large-scale enthusiasm for breeding Chinese painted quail led to the fact that breeders brought breeds of many colors. The following bird colors are now found:

External features

These are small birds, the weight of the largest specimens does not exceed 45 g. Males of this breed have a very colorful and bright feather outfit, females are gray and inconspicuous. Birds are kept in households as an ornamental breed of birds, as well as for eggs and meat. Quail eggs in many countries are considered delicious food. Did you know?

Gender differences

  • the female is smaller than the male,
  • the males are brightly colored, and the females have a nondescript “outfit”.

The natural color of the male is dark brown with a blue-gray chest and a gray-brown tint on it, the abdomen is painted dark red, the neck is black, with white and black stripes. The color may also contain lighter shades of brown that stand out on the feathers of the wings with a colorful pattern.

The female does not have a colorful coloring of the male. It has feathers of brown color with a rusty brown color of the abdomen and breast. Females and males have black beaks, orange or yellow legs, and a short dark brown tail.

female - 12.5 cm

male - up to 14 cm.

female - from 66 to 67 mm,

Learn how to properly feed quails.

female - 20–22 mm,

male - about 25 mm.

As a result of selection, Chinese quail with silver-colored feathers was also bred. The males and females of the newly created species have the same color of the feather cover. Important! If the Chinese quail began to drop fluff and feathers, this is a signal that there are drafts in the room where they are kept. The poultry breeder needs to eliminate the gaps into which the draft penetrates, or to direct the fans to the other side to ventilate the room.

This small exotic bird is widespread in Asia. It can be found in India, Ceylon, in the Far Eastern regions of China, on the Indonesian archipelago and in New Caledonia. Chinese quail live in rice fields and marshy plains, where they find food consisting of wild seeds and the remains of a grain crop, sometimes small insects. Living on vast, even spaces, birds feel safe from the attack of predators.

These birds are very prolific and carry tiny speckled eggs the size of an olive. In our country, quail eggs are considered a delicacy. They are rich in vitamin D and high in antioxidants. Females begin to lay their first eggs at 6 weeks of age. During the year, the quail carries from 150 to 200 eggs.

Body weight of birds:

Did you know? A person needs to eat only two quail eggs per day to get half the recommended daily dose of vitamin D.

Painted quail is generally called the most beautiful bird of the species. This species of birds is a decorative breed due to natural external data.

Painted Chinese Quail

The color and size of the bird in males and females of Chinese quails have striking differences. Males are characterized by a brown color of the chest and nape, on which there is a black border. It runs along the neck, framing white feathers. The female's neck is white.

Breed description

The painted quail takes a mixed color: on top it is dark gray, the breast is red, and the throat has a pattern of black and white flowers. The color of the beak is black, and the legs are orange.

Females of Chinese quail have gray feathers on their backs and brown feathers on their breasts, feathers throughout their bodies have brown tips.

The size of the carcass of a Chinese quail is fourteen centimeters, and the length of the tail is three and a half centimeters. The color of the male’s head has gray-blue hues. The color of the feathers of the painted quail varies from silver to brown.

This species was discovered in South Asia and Australia. In the wild, they build nests on the ground, collecting leaves and dry grass.

Representatives of the species of Chinese quail live in pairs and the male takes an active part in the cultivation of chicks. They make nests in the meadows. Having chosen a place for the future nest, the male proceeds to his duties of protecting the territory and protecting the offspring. Males show great concern for their female, offering her food before embarking on a meal.

Male and female painted quail

Breeding is based on the content of quails in groups so that there are several females per male. Build breed enclosures in the bushes and on the grass, in other conditions, Chinese quail do not hatch eggs. For one egg laying, the female lays up to ten eggs, painted in olive color with black spots. The process of hatching with this species lasts about fourteen days.

Chinese quail rarely flies, mostly running. Take this feature into account when building an aviary.

Keeping Chinese birds requires many shelters and one closed corner in the house. Such a construction is connected with the fact that they are kept in groups and in case of aggression between individuals, these closed corners will become places of shelter. Create a large floor area so that the house does not become cramped and when calculating the length and width, consider the number of birds and their size.

Chinese quails need a spacious cage

A feature of the content of the Chinese breed is their reaction to fright, they fly vertically upward. Take this point into account when building a house, quail often hit their head at such times. It is possible to encircle the upper part of the enclosure with soft material in order to avoid injuries, but in such a way as not to reduce the light exposure. Build a house on the basis that the height should be at least a meter.

Chinese quail nutrition is based on:

  • cereals
  • insects
  • fresh herbs
  • egg feed
  • compound feed:
  • worms and moths.

To bathe Chinese quails, put a sand bath in a separate part of their enclosure. The bathroom itself should have high sides.

Bird feed is carried out three times and four times a day. Hatching of poultry eggs is carried out in aviaries, having previously prepared a nest in the recess of the floor, in a separate part of the aviary.

Fattening of chicks is based on feeds with a high level of protein content.

There are frequent cases when females do not hatch eggs on their own. For this reason, an incubator should be prepared nearby.

This variety is not endowed with certain differences, with the exception of the appearance of the quail and the place where the eggs hatch.

In group breeding, chicks are hatched in an incubator

In China, these types of quail were used exclusively as a decorative look, and many breeders carried them with them like heating pads.

It is preferable to keep them in pairs, as this is characteristic of their nature. And to build open-air cages on a grassy floor, there they can twist their nests on their own.

Lighting they like a natural, but excessively dark room will not affect their development favorably. Nutrition must include all the necessary vitamins and minerals. If you keep them in pairs, an incubator is not necessary. But, when kept in groups, the females will not hatch eggs themselves.

This type of quail is the smallest and most beautiful. Individuals of Chinese quail can live up to ten years when kept in wild conditions.

Add supplements containing vitamin D to your diet. And arrange quails to walk outdoors and in the sun, or ventilate the aviary and build in artificial lighting. Prevent drafts and clean the house regularly.

If you keep Chinese quails in pairs, they hatch eggs on their own

For better digestion and proper operation of the esophagus, put them separate bowls of sand and gravel. and change their water.

During the laying period, females are provided with the highest content of minerals and vitamins. You can use feed for this. After laying eggs, the birds need rest. To do this, the quail female is transplanted into a separate cage with soft food and give her grain food. Reduce the duration of lighting in a single cell.

Some farmers make the room specially darker than usual and lower the temperature of the content. For this purpose, in the cold season, you can put the place of its maintenance on the balcony.

If your bird is exhausted from hatching eggs, give it a light massage of the abdominal cavity and lubricate the cesspool. In addition, give her an immunofan solution and add calcium gluconate.

In no case should oats be added to cereals; quails do not digest this type of grain.

This type of quail is not used to obtain meat or eggs, as they do not have high rates in these parameters.

They are not overly picky in care.

Quail are one of the most popular species of birds bred by humans to meet their own gastronomic needs. Currently, science knows more than 40 quail breeds, more than half of which are actively grown on poultry farms. The main reason for the popularity of the species is its high egg production, however, in recent years there has been an increase in the tendency to breed quail for meat.

Chinese quail (Latin name Chinenesis Coturnix) belongs to the pheasant family. In the wild, varieties of Chinese quail live in the Asian part of the globe.

Area and places of residence

Today, Chinese painted quail is in China, birds can be found on African territory. The resettlement of birds covers Ethiopia and Zambia, passes through the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, affects the Asian peninsula of Hindustan. Their nests were recorded within the borders of Burma and Thailand, on the Pacific island of Taiwan and Kalimantan, in the Philippines and Java, in Australia and Pacific New Guinea.

Originally painted birds from China were kept as decorative birds in a small homeland. They were even carried with them as pets right in the pockets of clothes, warming their hands about them in the winter cold. In Europe, a blue pet appeared at the very end of the XVIII century, it is still popular for keeping among decorative poultry.

As a place of residence, quail from China prefer flat and mountainous areas, where there are dense and rather humid meadow spaces. In these places, they make paths that look like long grass tunnels. In Africa, Chinese quail can be found in small numbers, where it settles in the mountains at an altitude of approximately 1.8 km above sea level.

During the period of their unstable migratory movements, quails from China have to adapt to the rainy seasons, often in bad weather starting the nesting process. For example, quail nests in the Nigeria area begin to build upon arrival at the nesting site when active rains begin.

Breeding process

Chinese quail refers to monogamous representatives, keeping their pairs for mating and reproduction throughout life. The period in males begins with a high three-part sound made by them in the form of a whistle.

The nest of the described species of birds is exclusively occupied by the female. For one egg laying she usually carries from 4 to 10 eggs, in rare cases, the laying of a quail counts up to 12-14 eggs. In this case, the color of the egg shell can vary and be different shades of yellow and brown. Sometimes the eggshell is covered with contrasting bright specks of dark brown, almost black, color.

Like the nest building process, the hatching of the chicks rests solely with the female Chinese quail. The role of the male in raising chicks is reduced to the protection and protection of the nest.

Hatching chicks takes an average of 2-2.5 weeks. Newborns quail the size of a large bumblebee leave the nest on the first day of their independent life. The diet of their food is no different from the feed menu of adult birds. Already after 14-18 weeks, young growth becomes sexually mature and completely independent.

A Chinese quail may have more than one brood per year. Their number directly depends on the quality of the feed ration, and with sufficient adequate nutrition, the removal and rearing of chicks can follow one after another.

Quail Breeds and Their Features

  • The length of the body is 12-14 cm.
  • Ponytail length - 3-3.5 cm.
  • The head is a gray-blue hue on the sides and bottom, on the top and back of the head the plumage is brownish-brown, there is a black border on the back.
  • A white strip stretches from the base of the beak to the eye.
  • Under the white stripe - black, which connects a dark spot on the throat and chin, borders a white beard.
  • The beak is black.
  • The legs of the painted quail, in contrast to the usual, bright orange.
  • The iris is red.

The beak, eyes and legs of quails are the same color as males. Their size is almost the same. The plumage of a Chinese quail female is more modest, although no less beautiful:

  • Breast red with a brown tint.
  • The throat is white.
  • The top of the plumage is sandy.
  • Sides of a light brown shade with red or red tint.
  • Each feather at the tips has a black or dark brown edging.

In appearance, the painted Chinese quail resembles a multi-colored, fluffy and moving ball. Such birds will become a decoration of any yard. In more detail, the appearance of the painted quail can be seen in the photo and video.

Chinese quail refers to a prolific species characterized by sexual deformity. They live in the southeastern part of Asia, Africa and Australia.

In the summer they are kept in the fresh air, in the winter - in heated enclosures and cages. Quail are very sensitive to drafts.

When keeping them in captivity in the room where they live, it is necessary to maintain a certain mode of lighting and heating. The quail is fed grain, insects, herbs, and worms.

Home Content

Breeding Chinese painted quail on private farms is becoming an increasingly popular activity. A couple of dozen of these small birds can diversify the diet of a small family with eggs and dietary meat. Let's see what conditions must be created for the successful maintenance of Chinese quail.

Chinese quail (Latin name Chinenesis Coturnix) belongs to the pheasant family. In the wild, varieties of Chinese quail live in the Asian part of the globe.

BROCHURE FOR A BUYER OF CHINESE SCHEDULED QUAIRS What you need to know if you are going to buy or bought these birds - Painted Chinese quail Coturnix chinensis (the smallest representative of the chicken order, average weight 50 grams).

Selection of couples BIRDS MONGAMNES and in nature live in pairs. In captivity they are taught to live in different ways. But often it turns out that you won’t go against nature, and even in a pack they create a strong loving couple, and they start to beat the rest to severe injuries.

Abrupt takeoffs with a “candle” Birds need either a soft or high (above 50 cm) ceiling. And necessarily a large number of shelters. Frightened, the birds try to hide, but if it seems to them that this is impossible - they jump sharply upward, while developing a speed sufficient to severely injure themselves, about the top of the cage.

SunlightBirds need to have “sunbathing”, or lighting with special lamps, as an alternative, make sure that the bird receives vitamin D with vitamin supplements. Without it, calcium is poorly absorbed, and this can lead to premature death of females.

mineral mixture for birds (from a pet store), eggshell, sepia or shell rock. In ampoules (calcium glucanate, bought in pharmacies - plus the fact that you can add it to water, to a drinker). Calculation - 3 ml of calcium glucanate per 100 ml of water. The course lasts up to 14 days. Birds need a rest from the breeding season.

Not all females sit on eggs to hatch (how to stimulate them to do this - read below), some continue to lay eggs again and again. If the bird has sat down to incubate, it gets a natural rest, but what to do with those who have not manifested the instinct of incubation? What can be done to stop oviposition?

How to stop oviposition If the bird feels normal, but the duration of oviposition is more than 2 3 weeks, you can give the bird a rest. It is best to put his female in a box or a small cage without shelters (do not forget about the soft top). Change feed to whole grain - no additives, no proteins.

Reduce the daylight hours to 10 - 9 hours (in the morning and in the evening we additionally cover the cell with dark tissue). Some breeders greatly shade the cage for a whole day, they also practice lowering the temperature in the room to 5 - 8 degrees Celsius - if it is possible in the fall or spring to put the cage on the balcony for several hours.

How to save a bird exhausted by a long egg-laying or a bird that cannot spread. If you didn’t have time to stop a long and intensive egg-laying, the bird is sluggish, lies on the ground, has dried up - it is exhausted and cannot “spread” - it needs urgent help. Additional heating. One lamp for 25 - 40 watts.

Massage the abdominal wall (gently). You can lubricate cesspool with petroleum jelly. - immunofan diluted in drinking water - 1 ml100 ml of water - at least 3 days. - give this solution to drink: 10-15 grains of “inflamed” and 0.5 ml of “gamavit” in 50 ml of water. within 15 days. - calcium gluconate - 2 drops per beak - 1 time per day, 5 ml per 100 ml of water - in a drinker.

The main feeding diet for adults painted quail should be fed with all kinds of small grain feed (except for containing unshelled oats), various insects, flour worms, bloodworms, finely chopped greens, egg feed with the inclusion of various mineral additives.

A cage-style sand bath Like most chicken, these quails love to swim in dry sand, so they need to have closed baths with a 4-5 cm thick sand layer.

Quail cagesPerpenes are kept in cages, aviaries and terrariums. Another good way to organize quail housing is to use “two-story” cages for hamsters. You just need to remove the “wheel”, make additional shelters, and provide a soft ceiling. I recommend a pvc substrate for a laminate in a couple of layers - it is very cheap, there are in construction stores.

It is possible to fix plastic wire ties to the net and grill, and “liquid nails” (with small strokes in several places) to be glued to the plastic ceiling with construction glue. The huge advantages of such cells are high sides (quail digs in the substrate and scatter it sideways), usually two doors - both on top and side, removable top - you can put large shelters, the ability to completely clean and disinfect the cage. Read more in the articles about equipping space for the contents of the Chinese painted quail.

Feeding troughs and drinking bowls When choosing feeding troughs it is important to take into account that quail love to dig into them and scatter food. Drinkers must be securely attached to prevent overturning. Otherwise, there is a large selection - they are suitable for any kind of feeders and drinkers.

What can not be eaten for unperturbed oats (included in the food for parrots - if you suddenly decide to use it). Yeast bread. Almost all birds cannot eat salt.

Caring for chicks There is a natural breeding and hatchery breeding, but in any case, for successful rearing, you must provide the birds with the following: HEAT, FOOD, WATER and PROTECTION. Chicks with parents If chicks grow with their parents, it is important to ensure that they do not offend them. For example, a male can peck their paws, then it should be dropped off.

Less commonly, there are times when the female is aggressive towards chicks. Well, and if suddenly for some reason both parents drive the chicks away from them, they will have to drop them completely. But personally, I have not heard of such cases. When the chicks bask in the feathers of their parents - additional heating is not needed. But if the cage (aviary) is large (large) and it is possible to put a 25-watt bulb at a distance of 20 cm from the floor - you can do this.

Especially if the room is cool. In this way both parent birds and chicks can be warmed. Incubator The newly hatched Chinese painted quail chicks are able to eat and drink immediately after hatching. If you were not at home and a new generation hatched in the incubator, do not worry - for some time they can live without food and water (theoretically, even more than a day).

If they have just hatched, they should be specially run up in the incubator for a couple more hours. During this time, they will dry out and stand on their paws. Brooder device Some use a cardboard, plywood box or plastic container, some a small aquarium as a brooder. The heating element should be a 25-40 watt bulb.

Do not use energy-saving lamps, as they do not emit enough heat. Do not use heating pads, as lighting is important for you to eat and drink chickens. For optimal growth, provide 24 hours of lighting. Place the thermometer in the brooder and maintain the temperature at about 35 ° C during the first week, gradually lowering it by about 2.5 degrees per week until it reaches room temperature.

Litter for chickens is best made from fabric. Do not use paper, as chickens will move their legs apart, so-called “twine” may occur and the young bird will not be able to walk. You can use a ribbed plastic mat - it can be disinfected and reused. Food and water for chickens This part of the article also refers to the care of chickens that grow with a brood.

A finely chopped chicken or quail egg crumbles onto most of the brooder floor. You can add compound feed for chickens, ground in a coffee grinder. Water should either be in a bird's drinker with a very small nose, or in a saucer, on the bottom of which there are pebbles or decorative glass balls. The saucer can be part of a large vacuum drinking bowl - these are sold on farms, or just an open saucer.

Protection of chickens In addition to protection from a possibly aggressive male, the main problem is the protection against attempts to climb or get out of the cage somewhere (if kept with a chicken). Be careful, chicks even crawl through a grid with 1x1 cm cells! Provide extra sides with mosquito net, cardboard or fabric around the cage. When kept in a brooder, chicks can be safely moved at the age of 5-7 weeks into a cage or aviary.

The nature of the birds - general friendliness, situational aggression. Chinese painted quail refers to a species that calmly endures cage neighbors. Especially if they occupy the upper floors (Amadins, Streptopelia, Canaries and others). Adult males of their species are territorial and aggressive towards each other, do not get along together, therefore, only one male should be on one territory, or the territory should be large enough to contain several pairs.

Females can show aggression towards each other, or they can get along. It is usually customary to keep separately a pair of male and one female. Adolescents can live together - from chicks to puberty (about 2 months). Young birds will show aggression to younger chicks, it is better not to allow neighborhoods of different ages.

Males reach maturity a little earlier than females - starting from 2 months of age, and females “catch up” them only at 3 months old - and can immediately begin to rush. Breeders had cases of fights in young birds, because of this, some advise from 2 to 3 months to keep adolescents in isolation - in solitary cages. But there were also cases of successful pairing, the selected couple moved directly from the “teenage” cell into an individual and lived calmly.

Little chicks

In the first week of life, the little quail will be fed at least 5 times a day, then 4 times, and closer to the month - 3 times.

  1. Chicks feed on flour worm larvae, mosquitoes, fruit flies, hard-boiled chicken, finely chopped celery, grated carrots and poppy seeds.
  2. For babies in the cages, drink-spills are arranged. At the bottom of a flat dish, a half-liter jar of water turned upside down is installed. Between the neck and bottom of the saucer insert a pad of two or three matches. This will create a gap through which drinking water will freely penetrate from the can into the drinker.Having drunk from such a drinking bowl, the chicken will never be wet and will not freeze.
  3. For proper development, chickens require mineral supplements. They can be purchased at veterinary pharmacies and mixed into feed.
  4. In the fourth week of life, babies begin to gradually transfer to a diet intended for adult birds.

Chickens of Chinese quail are yellow-brown in black, longitudinal stripes. Young quails grow very quickly and change their plumage. At the age of two weeks, they learn to fly, and at the sixth week they usually fully lean and change the color of their feathers to the same as in adult birds.

07.02.2018

Painted quail (lat. Coturnix chinensis) is a small bird from the Phasianidae family. It belongs to the subfamily Partridge (Perdicinae) and differs from the Japanese quail in its smaller size and more attractive outfit. The first copies were brought to Europe from Indochina in 1794.

In ancient China, it was considered a sign of a refined taste to carry a couple of these in the birds in their pockets and warm their hands on them on cold winter days.

This custom persisted until the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1815, the Dutch zoologist Konrad Jacob Temmink even attributed this species, together with the African blue partridge (Coturnix adansonii) to the genus Excalphatoria, which literally means "warming".

Painted quails have no commercial value and are bred mainly as decorative birds. Their breeding began in 1873 in France, and from there it soon spread to other European countries. To date, many breeds that differ in the color of plumage have been bred. In recent years, a number of taxonomists call the species Coturnix chinensis both royal or Asian blue quail.

Quail painted (Chinese)

Painted quail (Chinese), or dwarf quail - Coturnix chinensis - the smallest representative of the chicken order, which is very popular among lovers of exotic birds. Homeland - Southeast Asia, in vivo the way of life of a bird does not differ from the behavior inherent in the entire order of chicken.

The size of the painted quail does not exceed 11-12 cm. By color, the male can be easily distinguished from the female: the male is painted in darker colors, the abdomen is dark brown, on the throat there is a white half ring, bounded above by black and black. The female color is more modest, "masking."

As a result of a large selection work, in addition to the natural "wild" color, a clarified mutation of painted quail, the so-called silver, was derived. Both sexes of birds of this mutation are painted almost identically, but the male has a white color on the throat brighter and trimmed with gray, the female throat is gray-white, monophonic.

They fly only in case of emergency (for example, with a fright), but mostly run on the ground.

Adult quail

It is desirable to make the food of Chinese quails as diverse as possible.

  1. In summer, birds are cut from various fresh herbs or grazed on a green lawn daily under the supervision of their hosts for an hour. Their diet includes: millet, ground peanuts, hemp and poppy seeds, small insects.
  2. To slightly diversify the diet, quails in the summer season are offered in small quantities chopped fruits, berries and vegetables. It is possible to increase the offered portion only after the poultry breeder is convinced that unfamiliar delicacies do not cause diarrhea in pets.
  3. In winter, the diet is enriched with dried herbs (dandelion, plantain, nettle). It is advisable to give grated carrots 2-3 times a week: this vegetable is useful for birds with a large amount of carotene.
  4. In drinking bowls, drinking water is changed twice a day. In winter, drinking water should be warm so that birds easily susceptible to disease do not catch a cold.

Distinctive features of the species

The distinguishing features of this species of birds should include, firstly, their appearance, and secondly, the place of hatching by quail eggs. Regardless of gender, the color of the beak in Chinese quails is black, the tail is short with a dark brown tint, and the legs are painted in orange or yellow. The male and female of the Chinese painted quail are painted brown, however, as a result of selection, a species with a silver color was obtained.

The difference between a male and a female

Painted quail as a biological species is characterized by sexual deformism, which manifests itself in the anatomical differences between males and females. So, quail differs from quail in color and size. The male is larger than the female. The main dimensions of the male and female of these birds:

Parametermalefemale
body length cmuntil 1412,5
wing length mm65-7866-67
tail length mm2520-22
weight g4028

The male has a motley brown color, a blue-gray breast with a gray-brown tint. The abdomen of the male is painted dark red. The neck of quail has shades of brown with bright white and black stripes.

The female has a plain brown color with a rusty tinge on the abdomen and breast, and the throat is white. Each feather has a fringing of black or dark brown color.

Productivity

To attract females, the male publishes something similar to KUII-KII-KYu. Such sounds are heard at a distance of more than 1 km. When nesting, the quail does not participate in the creation of the nest, but brings food to the female and helps in the future with the offspring. A female Chinese quail builds nests on the ground, collecting blades of grass and leaves.

This species of birds is prolific and brings from 150 to 200 eggs per year the size of an olive with numerous speckled specks and weighing up to 12 g. Quail eggs contain 1.4 μg / 100 g of vitamin D, as well as vitamins of groups B, A, E , PP, K, macro- and microelements.

Quail usually hatches 4-6 eggs in a nest, rarely up to 14 eggs. in two weeks. Painted quail chicks are born no larger than a bumblebee and leave their nests on the first day. After a few weeks they already fly, and after 3 months they can lay eggs. During the season, one pair of quail can postpone no more than 3 clutches, which depends on the quality of their content and the amount of food. After laying eggs, the females are transplanted into another room with lighting specially darker than usual and transferred to cereal feed.

Due to stress, the females stop hatching eggs and then use an incubator in which the eggs are kept for two weeks at a temperature of 37.5-38 ° C. After the chicks hatch, they are placed for several days in a box with a temperature of 28-30 ° C, which is gradually reduced to room temperature.

House Maintenance

Painted quail is kept in summer in the fresh air, and in winter - in heated rooms in cages or aviaries. They are kept in pairs or a male with several females. With a large accumulation of birds in the cage, quail can begin to pluck feathers to each other. Poor nutrition and stressful atmosphere in the nursery can also lead to such bird behavior.

In summer, birds are placed in an enclosure in a quiet, dry, shady place with a concrete base, sprinkled with yellow sand or sawdust, and without drafts. The walls and ceiling of the aviary should be made of metal mesh with small holes. Low shrub plants such as juniper and dwarf thuja should be planted inside the enclosure. About a third of the enclosure is occupied directly by the quail, and the rest is intended for bird walks in the fresh air.

When keeping Chinese painted quails in a room, certain requirements must be observed: the absence of drafts, continuous lighting for 18 hours, and then for 6 hours alternating day and night every 2 hours. The air temperature should be maintained in the range from +10 to + 25 ° С, optimal - 16-18 ° C. The maximum allowable number of birds in the aviary depends on its area at the rate of 10 cm 2 per individual.

Room

In winter, the quail is taken into the house and kept in cages, or special wooden or brick heated enclosures with lighting are constructed for them, one of the walls of which is glass. The roof and walls of the sparrowhook should be well insulated. The enclosure for wintering also consists of two parts, separated by shields, the smaller of which is heated. The second, more extensive part, intended for walking, not heated. The floor of the enclosure should be strewn with sand, sawdust. It is necessary to install sockets under the walls. For additional warming, a vestibule is provided in front of the entrance to the aviary.

Cells

Chinese home painted quail at home is kept on glazed heated balconies in small boardwalks measuring L × W × H - 100 × 50 × 70 cm, one side of which is made of painted metal mesh. If the birds are kept in cages even in the summer, only the floor and ceiling of the cage are made of boards or plywood, and the walls are made of metal mesh.

In the front of the cage there is a longitudinal hole for the eggs and a shelf with a rim on the outside, where the eggs roll. Inside the cage are containers for food and water. The bottom should be covered with dry material (e.g. chips). The ceiling is softened with a special material to prevent bird blows to the ceiling.

Relocated

The chickens of the Chinese painted quail on the first day should be fed with chopped boiled egg. Then gradually insects, greens, carrots, seeds are introduced into their diet. Chicks are allowed to feed. The number of feedings of chicks in the first week of life is 5 times a day, then gradually reduced to 3 times by the end of the month. Non-spill drinkers are placed in the cells. The diet will include quail special vitamin supplements. Closer to a month they are transferred to adult food.

Adults

Chinese quail feed 3-4 times a day with grain, except for oats, insects, worms, animal feed, herbs and grass. Be sure to have in their feed all the necessary vitamins (especially D) and minerals. Daily replacement of drinking water is required in the morning and evening, and in winter it is necessary to check that the water is warm.

Spread

Painted quail is widespread in the Afro-Asian region. Ornithologists currently distinguish 10 subspecies. Nominal subspecies C.c. chinensis lives in Southeast China, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, the Malay Peninsula, Taiwan and India.

The remaining subspecies are common on islands in the Indian Ocean, New Guinea, and Australia. On the African continent, only small isolated populations survived, leading predominantly nomadic lifestyles depending on precipitation.

At the end of the 19th century, attempts were made to introduce the species into New Zealand, but they were unsuccessful for various reasons. Feathered birds settle mainly on moist grassy plains and much less often in mountainous areas.

Behavior

Representatives of this species lead a land-based lifestyle and fly only if absolutely necessary for short distances. They move along the surface of the soil with quick mincing steps. They get their own food there. Among the dense grass, the birds lay peculiar tunnels along which they stroll during daylight hours.

The basis of the diet is food of plant origin.

Asian blue quail in the spring eagerly eats young grass and tender shoots of shrubs. In the summer, insects additionally appear on their menu, most often beetles from the families of the Nutcracker (Elateridae), Darkling (Tenebrionidae) and Weevils (Curculionidae).

With a good combination of circumstances, birds can feast on small worms and snails. In autumn, they eat more seeds of various plants, primarily cereal crops. In general, the painted quails are unpretentious in the choice of food and are satisfied with any available food, depending on the climatic conditions of the area where they live.

In the wild, outside the nesting season, they form small flocks without a rigid social hierarchy or live alone. Birds are very careful and try not to attract too much attention. In captivity, they are quickly tamed and, with a good attitude towards them, become tame.

Breeding

Painted quails in the nesting season form monogamous families, which differs from related species, gravitating to polygamous relationships. They have no pronounced mating season. They can breed all year round. In most subtropical regions, the peak of the appearance of chicks in the world coincides with the beginning of the rainy season.

Males call females with a high three-syllable whistle, which is repeated many times in a short time. It resembles something similar to kwuiii-kii-kju. The nest is exclusively built by the female. It is a simple structure, consisting of a small hole in the ground and a canopy of thick grass growing nearby. Inside, it is lined with blades of grass and fluff.

In clutch there are usually 4-10, very rarely up to 14 eggs.

Their color may be different depending on the subspecies, ranging from solid yellow to brown, often with dark specks. The female incubates masonry, content with her husband's offerings. Incubation lasts 16-17 days.

Chicks hatch small, but already fully formed. The length of their body does not exceed 30 mm. From the first day of their life, they switch to pasture, eating small insects, larvae and delicate fragments of plants. Their menu is not much different from the diet of adult birds. Chicks become sexually mature at the age of 14-18 weeks.

The content of the painted quail in captivity

Painted quails breed well in captivity and managed to maintain parental instincts. With a balanced diet, the female lays about 10 eggs, and the champions even up to 30 pieces. She incubates them herself, but sometimes refuses to incubate. Then the eggs are placed in an incubator.

For the period of incubation of the eggs of the rooster, it is recommended to plant and return it again after the offspring. The first days after his return, it is necessary to pay attention to his behavior.

Individual roosters may be aggressive towards their offspring.

In this case, the aggressively disposed father is again seated and returned back after about a week. As a rule, the stress from seeing children for the first time passes through him, and he is more supportive of his chicks and takes part in their upbringing.

The cage should be spacious and tall. For one bird, it is desirable to have about 1 square. m of living space.

It is desirable to cover the cell ceiling with foam rubber. Alarmed quail tend to bounce high and fly up, sometimes inflicting significant injuries on themselves. Be sure to build shelters in the form of small houses or pieces of wood bark, where birds can hide if they wish. To take sand baths, a closed container is installed in which about 5 cm of dry sand is poured.

Adults painted quail fed with insects, worms, bloodworms and ready-made feed. It is recommended to regularly add finely chopped greens and mineral supplements to food.

In the diet, quail the first days should be dominated by food of animal origin, which should be chopped, for example, chopped boiled eggs and flour worms.

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