About animals

Jungle, jungle flora


Echinodorus "Jungle Star" is the collective name for a series of artificially bred varieties of echinodorus that appeared in Germany in the 1990s thanks to the efforts of Julius Hoechstetter. As a rule, they are on sale under the original German name Echinodorus “Dschungelstar”. Each variety is assigned a serial number, for example, No. 1, No. 2, No. 3 - No. 16.

The plant is a bush of leaves collected in a rosette. Depending on the particular variety, the color, shape and size of the leaf blade will vary. Echinodorus "Dschungelstar" No. 1 (first image) is characterized by a large bush up to half a meter high, narrow linear leaves up to 30 cm with petioles almost the same length. The color is dark red or purple.

Echinodorus "Dschungelstar" No. 2 (second image), also known as Echinodorus "Little Bear" has relatively small leaves up to 20 cm long and a short petiole up to 5 cm. The leaf blade is oval from rusty red to dark green in color. Each bush can contain up to 50 leaves. Unlike other plants of this series, it is able to grow in very hard water and is not attractive to herbivorous fish, so it can be used in aquariums with cichlids from Malawi and Tanganyika.

Echinodorus "Dschungelstar" No. 3 (third image) forms low bushes of only 20 cm in height. The leaves are narrowly elliptic 10–15 cm long and not more than 3 cm wide. The color is olive green with dark red oblong spots that appear on the side oriented towards the light.

Echinodorus "The Star of the Jungle" is considered quite hardy and does not require increased attention of the aquarist. About such plants they say "Planted and forgotten." It prefers soft nutrient soil, a good level of lighting, warm soft slightly acidic water, although it can grow at higher pH and dGH values.

36) Gandaria

The homeland of gandaria are Malaysia and Indonesia. It currently grows wild in the jungle and is widely cultivated as a fruit tree in Sumatra, the wet part of Java, in Borneo, in Ambon and Thailand. Fruits contain carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamins A, B1, B2, C, niacin.

37) Sugar palm

Sugar palm spread from East India in the west to Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines in the east. Most likely, its homeland is the Malay archipelago, in other areas it has naturalized. Juice of male inflorescences is collected in Asian countries on a commercial scale for sugar. Palm trees, unproductive from the point of view of obtaining juice, cut down and removed from the starchy core of sago. One of the industrial products of sugar palm is a durable and water-resistant fiber covering palm trunks. Fruits can also be eaten after special cooking, as fresh juice and pulp are very corrosive. To get sugar, collect the juice and boil it until a thick syrup is formed.

38) Convolvulus brasiliensis from the Convolvulus family

It grows on sandy beaches everywhere in the tropical zone. Together with Thespezia vulgaris, they are used as an antidote to the wart venom. The mixture of Convolvulus brasiliensis leaves and Thespesia populnea leaves is used as a remedy against the wart venom. This mass is put on a wounded place (Wikipedia material).

40) Tamanu

The resin obtained from their burnt wood Tamanu was used to treat wounds and ulcers. A mixture of resin, strips of bark and leaves was immersed in water. Floating oil has been used to treat eye diseases. It is believed that the resin contains benzoic acid and is useful for chronic wounds and skin lesions. Bark. The bark is used as an astringent, contains 11-19% of tannins. It is used as a decoction for internal bleeding and for washing poorly healing ulcers. The bark acts as an antiseptic and as a disinfectant. Grated with lime juice, used to deodorize the armpits, groin and legs. Root. A decoction of Tamanu root is used for dressing ulcers, as well as for sunstroke. The root is put in a bandage.

Sheet. Leaves soaked in water have a bluish color and a natural smell, they are used for eye inflammation. Leaf extract is also applied inward during sunstroke in combination with an external application of dressings with a decoction of the root. Reverse treatment consists in taking a decoction of the root inward and applying a hot compress from the leaves. In Madagascar, leaves are used to treat eyes. When soaked, the leaves have a pleasant aroma and are used in the Philippines as an astringent for bleeding, in Indonesia as an eye lotion. Papuans of New Guinea often use leaves in many cases of skin diseases. On the island of Manus, the leaves are heated to soften over the fire and then used to treat ulcers, abscesses, cuts, inflammation and acne, while on the island of Dobbu the leaves are boiled and periodically washed with dermatitis. Residents of New Caledonia and Samoa also use leaves to treat skin inflammation, leg ulcers, and wounds.

Fruit. According to the works of some authors, the fruits are somewhat poisonous. Only endosperm of unripe fruits is safe to eat.

42) Krinum Asian

Found in Asia: China, Japan, Korea, India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Indonesia (Java), Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Australia: Northern Territory, Marshall Islands islands, islands of Guam, Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Mauritius. It is used for complicated births and for the prevention of jaundice in newborns. It is also a painkiller, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory.

43) The cassava is edible

An important food plant in the rainforest. From the large tuberous-swollen roots of this plant, reaching a length of 1 m and having a mass of up to 15 kg, nutritious flour and cereal from starch (tapioca, or cassava sago) are obtained. Cassava is widely cultivated in South and Central America, in Africa, as well as in Asia, especially in Indonesia. Raw Cassava Roots Contain hydrocyanic acid glycoside - linamarine, the concentration of which separates cassava varieties into bitter and sweet (actually, non-bitter). The dose of hydrocyanic acid contained in 400 grams of raw bitter cassava is lethal to humans. Do not eat raw! Seeds of some varieties act as a laxative and cause vomiting. Although hydrocyanic acid at room temperature evaporates quickly enough, thorough fumigation of the tuber is required for its complete fumigation. Traditionally, the cassava roots are cleaned, ground or ground, soaked and boiled, which significantly reduces the cyanide content. An alternative method was proposed by Howard Bradbury: ground cassava mixed with water is laid in a thin layer of 1 cm in the shade, where it is dried for 5-6 hours. This leads to an almost complete evaporation of cyanide. The obtained pressed mass is a source of nutritious flour or cereal with a high content of starch.

44) Stcevola

Many species are found on the sandy and rocky coasts of Australia and the Pacific atolls. This tonic is used both to facilitate childbirth and for postpartum recovery of women in childbirth. Also used when bathing a newborn, it is a gentle astringent used to enhance the baby's health and prevent a rash. Fruits are also used in the treatment of acute infectious conjunctivitis, depression, and lower back pain.

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In this animation of images from 1975 to 2012 from Landsat 5 and 7 satellites, huge tracts of Amazonian forest disappear in the state of Brazil, Rondonia.

According to data provided by the Brazilian government, Amazon rainforest depletion increased by 28% last year. Minister of Environmental Protection Isabella Teixeira said 5843 square kilometers of rainforest were destroyed between August 2012 and July 2013.

Environmentalists accuse the deforestation of easing sanctions on companies involved in infrastructure development, including the construction of dams, highways and railways. On Wednesday, Ms. Teixeira stated that she would demand an explanation from the regional authorities when she returned from the UN summit on climate change in Warsaw.

“The Brazilian government should not tolerate the problem of illegal deforestation. We must stop the destruction of the forests, ”said Mrs. Teixera, adding that she firmly believes that damage to tropical forests can still be repaired.

Photo 1.

The furnaces used to produce charcoal are visible from a police helicopter during Operation Hileia Patria in Nova Esperanza do Piria. RICARDO Moraes / REUTERS.

There are several reasons that accelerate deforestation:

Firstly, due to the constantly growing production of soy and cereals in Brazil.
Photo 2.

Aerial view shows a stretch of the Amazon rainforest that has been cleared for agriculture near Santarem. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Second: According to researchers at Stony Brook University, cocaine production in Colombia also has a huge impact on increasing forest loss. The acceleration of their destruction contributes to the spread of cocaine bush, which in the rainforests has recently become too much.

One of the main causes of excessive deforestation in the Amazon is also an increase in exports of Brazilian beef. It turns out that 60-70 percent of land without forest cover is used for cattle breeding, mainly by farmers who own small farms.

Forests absorb about one third of fossil fuel emissions (they remove about 2.4 billion tons of carbon annually from the atmosphere). And so that ecologists have a chance to seriously tackleclimate change - global deforestation must be stopped. Well, or at least minimized.

Aerial view shows a stretch of the Amazon rainforest that has been cleared for agriculture near Santarem. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Deforestation in the Amazon is already much more than a regional problem. This is a global problem because the Amazon rainforest plays a key role in the Earth’s hydrological and climatic system and has a significant impact on the global climate.

Photo 3.

The Amazon rainforest covers a substantial amount of land and extends across Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Suriname, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela, Guyana and French Guyana, which represents approximately 40% of South America and can be compared with the size of 48 states located on the North American continent . The Amazon rainforest spans the Amazon River Basin, where the second longest river is globally after the Nile and the largest globally, including more than 1,100 tributaries, which are an important source of daily bread for plants, animals and people. Although people accessed the Amazon rainforest and were affected by their presence, the importance of this rainforest to the land continues to be recognized. There are several types of vegetation and ecosystems in the Amazon rainforest, some of which are savannahs, deciduous forests, rainforests, flooded forests and flooded forests.

Photo 4.

A fisherman's house is seen along the Tapajos River near Santarem. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

The most important rainforest in Africa is now located in the Congo Basin. Congo's rainforests are second in size to the Amazon rainforest, and extends to other countries like Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic and Cameroon. About two-thirds of the rainforest, still preserved, but the rainforest, is at risk of human intervention. The Congo rainforest is home to gorillas, bonobos, peacocks, chimpanzees, elephants and a wide variety of birds, insects, approximately 600 species of trees and approximately 10,000 species of animals, accounting for 70% of the biodiversity of Africa, ecosystems and tropical forests. More than half the people in the Democratic Republic of Congo, which has a population of approximately 60 million, depend on the rainforest for survival. The rainforest is an integral part of culture, diet, omens, housing and traditional methods. The Congo rainforests also have a very long and interesting historical background for tribal war, ethnic violence, and the Arab ivory slave trade. Commercial logging and community clearing is a big threat to the rainforest.

Once upon a time, rainforests covered vast tracts of land in Central America, making virtually from an area covered by deep rainforests. The tropical forests of Central America are endowed with many rare and specific species of plants, trees, and animals. Southwest Costa Rica, for example, Osa Peninsula is known for its diverse flora and fauna and animals such as Harpy Eagle, jaguars, tapirs, macaws, cougars, arrow frogs and fer-de-lance, Costa Rica's deadliest snake. Some of the birds in this rainforest are rare and have been declared endangered species. The rainforest of the Osa Peninsula has been described by National Geographic as ‘one of the most biologically intensive places on earth’.

Photo 6.

Area of ​​smoke clouds of the Amazon rainforest that are burned to clear land for agriculture near Novo Progresso. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 7.

Aerial view shows a stretch of the Amazon rainforest that has been cleared for agriculture near Santarem. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 8.

A tractor works on a wheat plantation on what was the Amazon rainforest near Uruar. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 9.

Area of ​​smoke clouds of the Amazon rainforest that are burned to clear land for agriculture near Novo Progresso. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 10.

Sawmills that process illegally harvested trees from the Amazon rainforest are visible near Uruar. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 11.

A truck driver eats canned food next to his truck after a rainstorm near the city of Uruar. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 12

Photo 14.

A truck carries a single bucket excavator at a sawmill near Morais Almeida. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 16.

A man walks past a car ready to drag a log from a forest in Zhamanshim National Park near Novo Progresso. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 17.

A tractor works on a wheat plantation on land that used to be the Amazon rainforest near Santarem. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 18.

A man carries his chainsaw past fallen trees in Zhamanshim National Park near Novo Progresso. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 19.

Aerial view of the construction site of a hydroelectric dam along the Teles Pires River, which flows into the Amazon, near Alta Forest, Para, June 19, 2013. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 20.

Photo 21.

An illegal sawmill construction site was spotted by a police helicopter during Operation Hileia Patria in Nova Esperanza do Piria. RICARDO MORAES / REUTERS.

Photo 22.

The Amazon rainforest area, which was burned to clear land for grazing, is seen near Novo Progresso. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 23.

Photo 25.

Photo 26.

A tree lying on the ground in the Amazon rainforest in Zhamanshim National Park near the town of Novo Progresso. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 13.

The tractor, previously used to transport logs from the Amazon rainforest, is burned by police near Novo Progresso. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Photo 27.

A policeman examines a tree illegally cut down in the Amazon rainforest in Zhamanshim National Park near Novo Progresso. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Police officers guard a man after his arrest for illegally felling trees in the Amazon rainforest near Moraish Almeida. NACHO DOCE / REUTERS.

Here, by the way, is another environmental topic: Black Gold of Nigeriaand here Mine is Guatemala's largest landfill, well, somewhat shocking me The other side of paradise

45) Physalis Peruvian

Currently introduced and cultivated in South Africa, parts of Central Africa, Australia, India, China, Malaysia, Belarus and the Philippines. The ripened fruits of Physalis of Peruvian are edible fresh. They are used to make jams, puddings, fruit salads and cocktails. In Colombia, a decoction of leaves is used as a diuretic and anti-asthma. Unripe fruits are poisonous!

46) Sweet Basil

The aerial part of the plant contains up to 1-1.5% of essential oil, up to 6% of tannins, glycosides, saponins, minerals, ascorbic acid, sugars, fiber, proteins, vitamin P, provitamin A, camphor. Essential oil contains eugenol, methylchavicol, cineole, linalool, camphor, otsimen. Eugenol is the main component of essential oil (up to 70%). Essential oil is found primarily in inflorescences. The highest oil yield is observed in the full bloom phase. Drying greatly reduces the oil yield. The seeds contain 12-20% fatty oil, the leaves contain 0.003-0.009% carotene, up to 0.15% rutin.

47) Black pepper

The pepper contains tar (1-2%), fatty oil (6-12%), a lot of starch. The burning substance of pepper is piperine alkaloid (5–9%), and the smell is due to the presence of essential oil (0.9–2.5%). The composition of the essential oil includes dipentene, fellandren and sesquiterpen karyophylline. Black pepper is obtained from the unripe fruits of the plant. In order to clean them and prepare for drying, the fruits are quickly scalded in hot water. Heat treatment destroys the cell wall of pepper, speeding up the work of the enzymes responsible for “browning”. The fruits are then dried in the sun or by machine for several days. During this time, the fetal shell is dried and darkens around the seed, forming a thin wrinkled layer of black. Only bitter glycoside piperine, essential and fatty oils, starch, vitamins E and C are reliably identified in it. According to the doctors of the ancient East, black pepper increases the digesting power of the stomach and the energy of the nervous system, strengthens the muscles, and has no equal in this. When ingested, black pepper opens up phlegm (which many sufferers of chronic bronchitis try in vain to achieve), warms the digestive organs, improves appetite, treats acid belching, dilutes thick blood from melancholic and phlegmatic, expels wind from the intestines.

48) Cubeb Pepper

Curly shrub native to the Great Sunda Islands (Indonesia) - Java, Sumatra and Borneo. The most fragrant of all existing peppers. The sharp-burning taste of this spice is given by Nepiperin, which is found in black pepper, and cubebin and a large amount of essence (in cubeb pepper it is 12%, and in black - maximum 4%). The specific composition of the essence and the resins contained in the cubeb pepper give it a peculiar aroma resembling camphor. Pepper is used in the treatment of the genitourinary system and ureters, and also has a positive effect on the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.

49) Nutmeg

Homeland - Moluccas. Cultivation - tropical forests of both hemispheres. The composition of nutmeg includes: elemicin - 0.35%, myristicin - 1.05%, safrole - 0.195%, methyleugenol - 0.09%, methylisoevgenol - 0.055%. The substances in nutmeg produce a psychedelic effect. The main component of nutmeg is essential oil, protein and starch. It contains from 7 to 15% of essential oil, which consists of various terpenes, as well as 3-4% of myristicin, elemicin, etc. Nutmeg possesses psychoactive properties.

50) Clove, or Sizigium fragrant

The homeland of cloves is considered to be the Moluccas (Malay archipelago in Indonesia). The buds contain up to 20% of essential oil and about 20% of tannins. The main component of clove essential oil is eugenol (70-90%), it also contains 3% acetyl eugenol and caryophyllene, which is an unclean mixture of sesquiterpenes, vanillin, protein substances and mineral salts. Clove has a burning taste and a peculiar strong aroma. High efficacy of the anthelmintic action of the flower extract in peanut butter in doses of 1 g, 0.5 g and 0.1 g / kg when administered to dogs in the stomach with ascariasis was noted. Alcohol tincture of the plant’s flowers in vitro has a bacteriostatic effect on diphtheria bacillus, anthrax pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus golden and white, paratyphoid A and B bacilli, dysenteric bacteria such as Shiga, Flexner, cholera and plague bacilli, as well as influenza virus. Plant preparations have a strong fungicidal effect on the types of fungi that cause skin disease, but they do not have an irritating effect on the skin.

51) Hydnocarpus

A genus of plants of the Achariya family that grow in humid, tropical Asia (Indochina, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines), tropical Africa, and tropical America. The oil obtained from the seeds of some species of hydrocarpus is used as a specific tool against acid-resistant bacteria, including leprosy pathogens. Indications: leprosy (especially in the initial stage) tuberculosis, trachoma, sciatica, rheumatism, psoriasis, filariasis (elephantiasis), epidermophytosis of the feet, epidermophytosis of nails, other skin diseases (eczema, scabies, ringworm), wounds, ulcers, prevention and treatment obesity. Only external use is allowed, as toxic May cause skin irritation.

52) Cinchona, Cinchona

From a distance, the quinar tree resembles an ordinary alder, only its leaves are shiny and the entire crown has a slightly pinkish tint. Pink, red or yellow-white fragrant tubular flowers are collected in thick panicles at the ends of branches. Fruit is an ovoid or oblong capsule containing winged seeds. Currently, the quinine tree is distributed in many tropical countries, the main part of the world production of quinar bark is in Indonesia. The cinchona tree has become famous thanks to its bark - South American natives have long been treating malaria with it. In the cortex of trunks, branches and roots of cinnamon, up to thirty alkaloids are contained, which have antimalarial, tonic and antiseptic effects, for the sake of which the cinchona tree is bred. Outside, the quinine bark is covered with a dark brown cork, often bearing lichens, the inner surface is smooth, red-brown, with a very bitter taste, but odorless. The active ingredients of the quinine bark are alkaloids, quinoline derivatives, the main ones are quinine and its isomer (stereoisomer), quinidine and their 6-dimethoxy derivatives, cinchonine and cichonidine.

53) Aloe

Plants native to Africa are widespread in South Africa, the mountains of tropical Africa, Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. The leaves and stem of aloe contain allantoin, natural antioxidants in the form of vitamins B, complex, vitamins C and E, as well as beta-carotene, which in the body turns into vitamin A. Currently, various aloe preparations are used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, for the treatment of gastritis, enterocolitis, gastroenteritis, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer, as well as bronchial asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis and hypochromic anemia. In eye practice, aloe is used to treat blepharitis, conjunctivitis, keratitis, opacification of the vitreous body, progressive myopia. In addition, for the treatment of burns, long-term non-healing wounds and ulcers, with radiation injuries of the skin, inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity, to regulate menstruation. Aloe juice can cause poisoning.

54) Bamboo

Being tropical and subtropical plants, in vivo bamboo grows in Asia, Europe, both Americas, Africa and Australia, groves are also known in Oceania. Young bamboo shoots are used as vegetables. Freshly cut bamboo shoots have a very hard, light yellow core with narrow jumpers at the knees of the air chambers. The bamboo used for food is cut immediately after germination, when the shoots are still covered with very strong, pubescent dark brown leaves, which are removed before cooking. Due to the fact that bamboo shoots contain a lot of silicic acid (H2SiO3), which is necessary to maintain the normal condition of hair, skin and bones and which has a calming effect on depression, they are used in traditional oriental medicine. It is possible to build houses from hard, light and very strong wood. Once the entire capital of Thailand rested on bamboo rafts. Bridges and water pipes were also built from bamboo.

*Note: all material on tropical rainforest plants is mainly taken from Wikipedia.