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The correct fit of someone who has mastered these three elements sits well and beautifully, which in turn allows him to properly act on the horse.
The idea of ​​the so-called classic, ideal fit pushes the novice rider on the path of formal imitation of the "ideal", which does only harm.
Different riders sit in the saddle in different ways. You can, of course, learn a lot by looking at others, since any image of the correct fit or its description involuntarily forces beginners to imitate it, the trainer will be wrong, requiring the novice rider to accurately copy such a “classic” position in the saddle. This will inevitably lead to stiffness, worse. The question: “How does a rider learn to sit correctly in a saddle?” Is extremely important. It is not simple, and you cannot answer it in a few words. Like the other two questions that beginners ask so often: "Am I sitting right?" and "What mistakes do I still make?" Oddly enough, each rider must answer the last two questions himself. Only he alone can judge whether he is sitting correctly in the saddle and has learned how to maintain contact with the horse. But all this provided that the novice rider himself understands what is at stake and what the concepts include: balance, muscle relaxation and entering the rhythm of the horse.

Sitting in the saddle, the rider should not take an unnatural position, and the position of his limbs is determined by the type of impact that he is going to have on the horse. Therefore, the position of the hands is not so important as the whole complex of possible effects on the horse - the reins, schenkels and the body of the rider.

The first thing a novice rider must learn is to maintain balance. He should be able to sit in the saddle, and not cling to the mane in despair, not to squeeze the horse’s sides with convulsions. The horseman’s body is necessarily vertically located at the deepest point of the saddle on both pelvic bones. It is important to remember that the deepest point is in the middle of the saddle, and not shifted forward or backward, although this happens in poorly made saddles, and quite often. The correct position of the saddle of a riding horse is shown in Figure 24. Hands and feet have nothing to do with maintaining the equilibrium of the rider, and only with a loss of balance, when it threatens to fall to the ground, everyone clings to the horse than he can.

Most likely the horseman can learn to maintain balance if he rides a horse for a while with a step, and then a calm trot. The less instruction he receives at the same time, the easier it is for him to concentrate and learn to maintain balance. If the same novice rider comes across a shaky, well-traveled horse, then the ability to balance will develop quite quickly. It is important that the beginner first mounted the horse with gentle movements and a calm character. At first, you need to ride with stirrups in order to feel absolutely safe from the very beginning, then confidence will appear, since there will be no reason to be constrained. If the rider still has difficulties, then most often because his horse is walking at a too fast pace. In this case, it is necessary to take a calmer horse: the calmer the first rider will feel at the first stage of training, the faster he will gain confidence and learn to maintain balance.

The acquired skill (and it comes after a few lessons) must be consolidated. And for this you need to ride without stirrups, but this should be done gradually so that the novice rider does not lose confidence and does not begin to cling to the horse again, otherwise stiffness of movements and insecurity reappears, which can lead to a fall from the horse. Gradually, the rider learns to ride without stirrups, first a little, and then for a longer time, and, being in the saddle, he can turn and do gymnastic exercises. Thus, he increasingly consolidates the skill to maintain balance in the saddle.

The ability to balance in the saddle quickly comes to every novice rider.It will be fixed due to the fact that the rider will learn to control the muscles of the lumbosacral region and the body. And only then will he sit comfortably and firmly in the saddle. Here it is necessary to explain what they mean when talking about controlling the muscles of the lumbosacral region and entering the rhythm of the horse’s movement, otherwise the requirements to sit straight or move the body back will lead to the rider’s stiffness or he will have too low back, and keep his balance landing is very difficult.
Each rider must first learn to balance while riding a horse, this is just as necessary as when riding a bicycle. Only by learning to maintain balance can the rider constantly feel the rhythm of the horse’s movement, enter it and act on the horse’s body *.

If the rider does not have confidence in maintaining balance, then he will never become a master of equestrian sport.
The ability to balance can be considered acquired if the rider and without stirrups confidently sits on a horse making a turn or moving serpentine, can turn, do gymnastic exercises and talk.
If the rider is confidently sitting in the saddle, maintaining balance, without interfering with the horse’s movements, then the moment will soon come when the horse herself will try to maintain balance with the rider and respond to any of its effects.
Also, a rider who already has some skills should systematically ride without stirrups. If someone does not like this, then he must honestly admit that he keeps himself in a saddle and is not able to maintain balance. Otherwise, riding without stirrups should not seem uncomfortable.

* It is very useful to ride bareback. Instead of a saddle, they put a blanket and fix it with a cable. So the rider will quickly learn to accompany the fluctuations of the horse’s back with the movement of his spine, find a single rhythm of movement.

The rider must sit naturally and naturally in the saddle, his muscles should not be constrained, that is, involuntarily strained. But this does not mean that his limbs are absolutely relaxed. The rider needs a certain muscle tension, as the gymnast strains them, preparing to perform a strength exercise on one of the shells. The difficulty is that the rider does not always realize whether his muscles are tense. But if the rider sits in the saddle uncertainly and with effort takes a certain position, clings to the mane or neck of the horse, then there is no need to talk about muscle relaxation. But as soon as the rider develops the skill to maintain balance, he will no longer be afraid of falling from the horse and will not be convulsively clutching at the mane or bow of the saddle. In this case, we can talk about the relaxation of the muscles of the rider.
One often hears that gymnastic exercises on a horse develop confidence in a rider, develop a sense of balance and promote muscle relaxation. All this is absolute truth: looking around, moving, talking and doing gymnastic exercises, the rider, without a doubt, begins to feel at ease in the saddle, gains confidence, and, consequently, his muscles relax. But this happens only when the novice rider learns to balance in the saddle and gain some confidence. However, it is impossible to do gymnastic exercises on a horse as the basis for training novice riders, to build a training system only on this. But some trainers devote too much work and time to gymnastic exercises on a horse. This can only prevent the rider from securing his balancing skill in the saddle. Sometimes you can see that riders, whose landing was already worthy of approval, as a result of excessive enthusiasm for gymnastic exercises (playing with the ball on a horse) tend to stay on the horse only with shankels, and not at the expense of balance.

Riding in the field gives the rider the opportunity to better learn the features of the horse’s behavior, and this, in turn, adds confidence to the rider, he sits in the saddle more freely, almost at ease. This process can be compared with studying a foreign language abroad, where it is much easier to learn than with the help of teaching aids and a grammar textbook. And after a person learns spoken language, it is easier for him to learn grammar.

It should be noted another extreme when teaching horseback riding: devoting too much time to gymnastic exercises on the horse, they forget about the general physical training of the rider. Ugly posture, bad habits and stiffness, which are the result of a lack of physique and poor physical fitness, of course, affect the rider's landing. But even in this case, it is necessary to distinguish between improper landing and landing due to congenital defects of the rider: curvature of the spine, poor mobility of individual parts of the body. That is, an experienced trainer should see the difference between physical disabilities and the bad habits inherent in a novice rider before he gets into the saddle. The trainer should discuss these defects with the athlete, and best of all not during riding lessons. If the rider’s mistakes are caused by fear of too high demands or due to too fast pace, then the coach and the athlete can find ways to address them. If the cause of the mistakes lies in the physical defects or habits of the novice rider, then the trainer should give advice to which the athlete, if he wants to learn how to sit beautifully in the saddle, should listen.

Unlike gymnastic exercises, the horses ’exercises are used to correct posture, eliminate stiffness and should be performed individually, not according to the template, as physical characteristics dictate a specific set of physical exercises to each athlete.

Unpleasant sensations that appear most often at the beginning of classes include hip pain that occurs when the femoral muscles are stretched. If the novice rider experiences such pain, then later the position of the pendants may be wrong with him. Only those who feel comfortable and relaxed in the saddle can work out the correct fit. If landing in the saddle causes inconvenience and it is difficult for the rider to keep his lower legs adjacent to the sides of the horse, then, most likely, his muscles and ligaments of the inner sides of the thighs are not elastic enough. Such unpleasant sensations are encountered at the beginning of training two-thirds of the riders. The reason, as already mentioned, is the strong and inelastic muscles of the inner thigh, which is especially common in adults. In most cases, this phenomenon is given too little attention. If even after some time these pains stop by themselves, which is completely natural, then the position of the schenkels may still remain wrong, and the rider himself will not understand what is the reason. And neither effort of will, nor effort will be able to save the novice rider from the stiffness of muscles, if he feels inconvenience in the saddle and can hold the body correctly only by straining the muscles of the shankels.

In this case, the following exercises should be recommended: legs apart and a stand with legs apart. This helps to stretch the inner muscles of the thighs, make them more elastic. But these exercises must be repeated daily and repeatedly in the morning, afternoon and evening.

It should be noted, however, that only gymnastic exercises cannot work out the correct position of the schenkels, so the rider must ride a horse regularly. And while frequent stretching exercises are not successful, the rider must choose a horse with less chest circumference and preferably not shaking.

Other defects of landing - stiffness in the hips and joints of the limbs, curvature of the spine or hips - should also be fought.The stiffness of the joints of the hands interferes with the rider, as well as the musician when playing the piano or violin. But it is important to remember that these errors cannot be eliminated in the short time that the rider sits in the saddle.

If the novice rider does not follow the advice of the trainer, then these shortcomings will affect his landing and control of the horse will be difficult. It is then that I draw attention to the fact that too little attention is often paid to this type of gymnastic exercise.

However, one must fear that, by correcting these defects, the rider will no longer feel free and relaxed in the saddle, what happens, and quite often, although many believe that this should not be feared. It seems as if the rider only needs to be told about his shortcomings, and he will correct them. In fact, sometimes such advice is more harmful than it seems at first glance. It is not so rare to correct landing defects in the end is nothing more than an attempt to squeeze the rider into the once developed standard, although more often a different, no less unpleasant landing defect is the rider's stiffness.

The position of the rider's body and its limbs depends on what effect they should have on the horse. Therefore, the rider’s landing is not evaluated on its own, but only in conjunction with the sending and the feeling of contact with the horse. It is in this relationship that one must try to correct the landing. The aforesaid cannot be interpreted as if it is easy to improve the landing, on the contrary, it is very difficult: when the rider learns to understand the horse and act on it correctly, then he will be able to develop a good landing.

The horseman forgot about muscle relaxation, and it seems to him that he is sitting correctly, in fact, he was likened to a dummy, unable to feel or act.

Each lesson (the beginning of movement from a place, the transition from step to trot, stop, turn, transition from step or trot to gallop) must be preceded by the collection of a horse. In this case, the rider is obliged to straighten up and act on the horse with shankels. In this way, he improves his landing and at the same time feels whether he managed to assemble the horse and whether it complied with his requirements.

If the rider himself and his trainer begin each lesson in exactly this way and do everything in the order described above, then any correction of the landing is unnecessary.

The trainer - whether he monitors the execution of his preliminary command or the landing of the novice rider - does not always catch the change in the landing of the student. But for the rider, each team dictates its conditions for its implementation. This already says a lot.

On the other hand, any commands, such as "straighten up," "sit straight," "chest forward," cause the rider to be constrained, since his attention is directed only to sitting straight. The rider must learn not only to sit upright, but to ride correctly.

How to learn to get into the rhythm of horse movement

All difficulties come only with the transition to a lynx, when the horse begins to toss the rider. Some horses throw more, others less. The slower the movement, the easier the rider will cope with this toss. If he has to ride fast, and even on a shaking horse, then he, of course, experiences great inconvenience.

The novice rider, trying to avoid the tossing, involuntarily squeezes the sides of the horse with the pendants, but this does not achieve what he wants. As a result, the inexperienced rider develops scuffs, stiffness of movements and a feeling of insecurity.

The reason for the lag of the rider from the rhythm of the horse was discussed in the chapter "Equilibrium". All this can be dealt with by learning to control the muscles of the lumbosacral region. Of course, a person usually makes natural movements without hesitation, but since the ability to control the lumbosacral part of the muscles plays a special role in the art of riding, this issue should be specifically addressed in order to emphasize its importance.But even if the rider learns to correctly execute movements with these muscles, this does not mean that he will be able to skillfully influence the horse from the very first steps.

As a swing can be rocked, changing the tension of the lumbosacral, so the horse can thereby be encouraged to move forward. If it is already in motion, then you can try to adapt to this, enter the rhythm of movement, accompany it with your body. If the rider already knows how to move the horse correctly, then it means that he can accompany its movements, if he does not know one of the two, then it is clear that such a rider does not know how to do either.
Many riders, even experienced ones, do not understand that the ability to enter the rhythm of a horse’s movement is the basis of a correct fit, without which there can be no subtle message. Do not think that over time it will come by itself, this needs to be learned. And I must say that a well-traveled horse is the best teacher, because it immediately responds to the slightest muscle tension of the lumbosacral part of the rider.

When a horse moves from a place, a rider, if he sends a message not only with the schenkels, but with the muscles of the lumbosacral and schenkels, feels that he is getting by with minimal pressure of the schenkels. The better the rider is able to use the tension of these muscles, the less pressure he gets on the schenkels.

Through the efforts of the muscles of the lumbosacral, the rider can stop the horse, while he feels that the stop is not happening as before. Without exposure to this muscle group, the horse was held in by strong pressure of the reins on his mouth. Now the rider only barely pulls the reins to stop the horse. At the moment of stopping, the rider feels like a horse brings his hind legs.

To understand the impact of the rider on the horse with the lumbosacral section, it is necessary to repeatedly repeat the start of the horse’s movement and stop, move from step to trot and stop, and so all the time, changing the pace, switch from step to trot and again to step, stop horse, and then again move it from its place. If you don’t understand this on your horse, you need to take another well-trained training horse and ride it until this understanding comes. If, in this case, too, you cannot find contact with the horse, then most likely you will not succeed in teaching you how to ride.
Accordingly, it is first necessary to understand that the beginning of a movement from a place and a stop by the efforts of the lumbosacral region and without them are significantly different. And only the horseman, who has learned to confidently act on the horse with the muscles of the lumbosacral, is able to interfere with the strong tossing of the horse.

On a slow trot, with the same effort of the lumbosacral section, which acts at the beginning of movement and stopping, the rider's pelvis and center of gravity are shifted forward. The horseman, with the help of shankels and muscles of the lumbosacral, is as if squeezed into the saddle. So, without much effort, a closer contact is established between the rider and the horse. On well-traveled and less shaking horses, contact comes much faster. This comes about thanks to the frequent change of pace, because the correct tension of the muscles of the lumbosacral region at the beginning of the movement and when stopped is transferred to the movement in trot. The higher the horse throws up and the faster the pace of movement, the more you should strain the muscles of the lumbosacral region. If the rider believes that he has already penetrated this mystery to some extent, then his ability to act with the lumbosacral muscles should be tested on other horses.

A rider’s landing can be considered correct if on a short trot not only on one, but also on many horses, the rider does not hang out in the saddle and tolerates movement, sitting so confidently and calmly that the piece of paper laid under him on the saddle can hold.

Getting into the rhythm of a horse’s movement is always something flexible, felt that it never takes effort and is not associated with large movements. Therefore, an attentive observer can detect it not by external signs, but only as a result of effects on the horse. A rider with this skill sits comfortably on a horse and throws him less than others. The sharp movements of the horseman's pelvis, its loose fit to the saddle, or its back is too arched have nothing to do with the ability to control the muscles of the lumbosacral region. The rider, straining these muscles, can lean back a little, but this will not help him enter the rhythm of the horse.

Sometimes you can hear from the trainer that the rider must swing the body to the beat of the horse. But this advice has not helped anyone yet. Fluctuations in the beat, that is, entering the rhythm of the horse’s movement, do not appear by themselves, but arise only from the active movement of the muscles, the conscious desire to move forward, as on a swing, the translational movement arises due to the tension of the lumbosacral muscles, and simple swinging has nothing to do with has no effect on the horse.

Muscle control of the lumbosacral

The efforts of the lumbosacral during riding are necessary for any impact on the horse. Without being able to properly act on the horse with the muscles of the lumbosacral, one cannot learn to make a promise. This can only be learned in practice, and only if the rider is not constrained.

1. Proper fit
2. Landing with tension of the spinal sacral muscles
3. Incorrect landing
1. The correct position of the rider's body in the saddle
2, 3, 4. Wrong position of the rider's body in the saddle

When mastering this technique, the rider can talk, whistle or sing. It is possible that then he will not be shackled.
In its natural position, the human spine is not a straight line. This can be easily verified. When the muscles of the lumbosacral region are tense, the lower end of the spine (with the sacrum forming the connection between the spine and the pelvis) is slightly moved forward. The pelvis is posteriorly displaced downward and raised in front, so that both pelvic bones move forward.
The opposite effect is achieved if the spine bends forward, when the pelvis leans forward, and its bones move back.
The muscles of the lumbosacral can be strained from both or only on one side, therefore, both the pelvic bones and only the right or left can be advanced.

Whether the rider has learned to control the lumbosacral muscles can only be checked while riding, and best of all, on a horse with a sensitive back.
The movement with which the muscles of the lumbosacral section are strained can be best understood by the rider by becoming familiar with the following exercises.


Tension of the right and left sides of the muscles of the lumbosacral

1. A person swinging on a swing, while moving forward, strains the muscles of the lumbosacral, and when moving backward, relaxes them.

2. A person lying on his back can raise his pelvis only by straining the muscles of the lumbosacral region.

3. A person standing in front of the table can torso promote a book lying at the edge of the table.

In this example, the difference in muscle tension of the lumbosacral region is most clearly visible. If the pelvis moves forward, as required when riding, then when the back is bent, the pelvis moves as if backward. This is associated with a protrusion of the chest and reduction of the shoulder blades.

4. Sitting on a chair and leaning on its back, you can push the hips and pelvis forward by tension of the lumbosacral muscles.

5. One who sits on a narrow, easy-to-tip stool, a paper basket, or something like that, legs wide apart, can only overturn the stool with the muscles of the lumbosacral region, provided that his legs are not in front of the center of gravity , but stand to the right or left.

V. Museler. Riding Tutorial # 2621

V. Museler: a riding textbook.
Translation from German N. A. Savinkov
Under the general editorship of Professor I.F. Bobylev
Moscow “Progress” 1980

Rider training
1. How to work out a proper fit
2. Equilibrium
3. Muscular relaxation
4. How to learn to enter the rhythm of horse movement
5.Muscle control of the lumbosacral
6. The tension of the right and left sides of the muscles of the lumbosacral
7. Unilateral muscle tension of the lumbosacral
8. Rider's contact with the horse
9. How to learn to control a horse
10. Management of the shenkels
11. The position of the shankels
12. The position of the stirrups
13. The position of the knees
14. The position of the rider's feet
15. Impact by the enclosure
16. Maintaining balance
17. Equilibrium and body control
18. Exposure to the housing
19. Balance when cornering
20. Side impact
21. Reins
22. Effects of muscles of the lumbosacral
23. How to ride a horse

Horse training
1. Purpose of dressage
2. Key views on dressage
3. Dressage process
4. The first stage of dressage
5. Teaching a horse to carry a rider
6. The second stage of dressage
7. How to train a horse to obey the promises
8. What is characteristic of a horse obeying promises
9. How to find out that a horse obeys promises
10. How to understand that the horse is completely relaxed
11. How does the rider understand that his horse obeys the pendants and the effects of the lumbosacral
12. How to find out if a horse obeys the reins
13. How to understand that the horse is in balance
14. When the horse moves straight
15. How to train a horse to obey the promises
16. Training the horse to obey the promise
17. Accustomizing a horse to obey the promise
18. Training a stray horse to obey the promise
19. Shyness of a horse
20. Horse "goat"
21. The horse stands on its hind legs
22. The horse suffered
23. Failure of a horse to move forward from a place
24. The horse is pressed against the wall of the arena
25. How to wean a horse from bad habits
26. How to teach an obese horse to obey the promise
27. Correction of stupid horses
28. How to work out the correct head and neck positioning on a stern horse
29. How to get an ugly horse to take a pretext
30. If the horse itself accepted the occasion, then it can be upset
31. Errors in correcting stony horses
32. What is riding assembly
33. Third stage of dressage
34. Collection and straightening
35. Normal set
36. Artificial setting
37. Natural delivery
38. Exercises
39. Preparatory exercises
40. Pre-launch exercises
41. Promises to start moving from place to trot and stop
42. Step and trot
43. Riding with acceptance
44. Turns in place
45. Turns on the front legs
46. ​​Turns on the hind legs
47. Going to the gallop
48. Gallop
49. Turns on the move
50. Decrease and increase in volts
51. Settling
52. Longitudinal bending of a horse
53. Two-track riding
54. Short half-volt

Rider Skills Development
1. Individual riding
2. Figure riding
3. Riding in the field
4. Relief in the saddle
5. Riding uphill and downhill
6. Swimming
7. Jumping

Horse Training
1. The approach to the obstacle
2. The behavior of the rider at the time of the jump
3. Horse mistakes during the jump
4. Landing
5. Competitions

Aids
1. The bridging
2. Seating
3. Bandages
4. Auxiliary reins
5. The whip
6. Spurs
7. Voice
8. Korda
9. Cavaletti

Everyone can learn to ride, for riding is a skill. But it can be comprehended only by one who has mastered the entire training system, which begins with the rider’s first attempt to stay in the saddle and continues in long and hard training, and not in excessive attention paid to appearance. The one who gains the skill must not forget about the correct fit.
Riding is beautiful in itself and can become an art. Everyone is pleased to consider themselves a master of their craft. But it can be only one who spares neither the energy nor the time to hone his skills, stubbornly seeks interaction with the horse, comprehending all the wisdom that a riding master must possess. The ability to ride a horse is not black magic, everyone can learn this.
The harmony between the rider and the horse is beautiful, achieving it is the ultimate goal of dressage.

Jan 26, 2011 15:24


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V. Museler. Riding Tutorial # 2631

Rider training.
A good rider should feel equally confident in the saddle when riding in a closed arena, in the field and when overcoming obstacles. The one who pays little attention will never become a master of riding, much less neglecting one of these types of riding.
From the first steps of training, it was rarely possible for anyone to predict how much he would master the art of riding. The first desire of a beginner is more modest - just to learn to ride. But the beginning of riding training was the same at first for everyone.
On a calm training horse, each novice rider must ride for 30 hours and sufficiently master the ride on all gait - step, trot and gallop. Of course, not everyone has the same opportunities for horse riding: one sits in the saddle only once a week, the other has more free time and interest in this sport is special, and for some people horseback riding is an addition to the profession. For some, a horse is a means of transportation, for others, comprehension of the secrets of riding becomes a long-term passion, an art. And naturally, the simpler the task the novice rider sets himself, the faster he can achieve the goal. If ambition and sports excitement do not give a person peace, and champion laurels dream of him, then he has a special attitude to horse riding. But the master of equestrian sports can only be one who daily for many years improves his technique, gaining knowledge and experience, although for such athletes the saying remains true: “Live and learn!”
Rider training is based on three “pillars”: working out the correct landing, achieving contact with the horse and the ability to act on it. None of these tasks can be called more important than the other, since they are inextricable and depend on each other. It is impossible to work out a good landing first, and then, independently of this, master the rest of the riding elements.
Training an inexperienced rider begins with exercises that contribute to the development of a proper fit, while at the same time he is taught to maintain contact with the horse and act on it. It is often said that landing is the basis of riding. To some extent this is, of course, true. On the other hand, the nature of the rider’s landing depends entirely on what effect he wants to have on the horse. And landing and impact are no less determined by the presence of contact between the rider and the horse.
From the very first steps, the novice rider must learn to find this contact, to sit firmly and naturally in the saddle thanks to the ability to maintain balance. He should easily enter the rhythm of the horse’s movement and learn how to influence it with the muscles of the lumbosacral, corpus, pendants and reins. Who does not feel contact with the horse, he can not easily and firmly sit in the saddle. Such a rider in some unnatural position “sticks” to the horse, which has nothing to do with riding. Such a landing is absolutely wrong, although it may seem true to the amateur. A good rider can be considered only one who feels contact with the horse and keeps in the saddle at ease.
Many consider themselves masters of riding, but to put it mildly, most of them clearly overestimate their abilities. Such riders put the blame on the horse, referring to some of its shortcomings, which with a competent assessment are not detected at all or do not play a significant role. Therefore, so many horses turn out to be poorly traveled, I note, by the way, that some of those that are said to be well-traveled are among them. Really good riders and well-traveled horses are very rare. And the main trouble is that few riders can pinpoint the causes of their own mistakes, find out what a horse is well or poorly ridden, and whether its shortcomings can be corrected.
And everyone who wants to master the art of riding should think about this. 99% of all horses sin by disobedience. And 99% of riders do not know how to rid their horses of this shortcoming and do not try to learn it. Presumably, they all heard that the horse must be trained to obey the promises. But only? Is it enough that they heard about it? Only few people do this. And thus they, although unintentionally, but inevitably get poorly-traveled horses. Is it really so difficult to train a horse to promises, as they say? A beginner does not know that to learn this is as easy as to get into the rhythm of a horse's movement. But 99% of all riders cannot learn to realize this fact, and therefore to work out the correct fit, because they do not know how to control the muscles of the lumbosacral spine. What every child can do on a swing is not available to most riders in the saddle. This bitter truth should make everyone who studies horseback riding think: should he not penetrate this “burning secret”.

How to work out the right fit.
The concept of “riding a rider” is often misinterpreted, because ultimately the important thing is not the position of the limbs, as is usually believed, but how the rider
1. keeps in a saddle, keeping balance,
2. sitting on a horse, relaxing muscles,
3. knows how to enter the rhythm of horse movement.
The correct fit of someone who has mastered these three elements sits well and beautifully, which in turn allows him to properly act on the horse.
The idea of ​​the so-called classic, ideal fit pushes the novice rider on the path of formal imitation of the "ideal", which does only harm.
Different riders sit in the saddle in different ways. You can, of course, learn a lot by looking at others, since any image of the correct fit or its description involuntarily forces beginners to imitate it, the coach will be wrong, requiring the novice rider to accurately copy such a “classic” position in the saddle. This will inevitably lead to stiffness, worse. The question: “How does a rider learn to sit correctly in a saddle?” Is extremely important. It is not simple, and you cannot answer it in a few words. Like the other two questions that beginners ask so often:
“Am I sitting right?” And “What mistakes do I still make?” Oddly enough, each rider must answer the last two questions himself. Only he alone can judge whether he is sitting correctly in the saddle and has learned how to maintain contact with the horse. But all this provided that the novice rider himself understands what is at stake and what the concepts include: balance, muscle relaxation and entering the rhythm of the horse.
Sitting in the saddle, the rider should not take an unnatural position, and the position of his limbs is determined by the type of impact that he is going to have on the horse. Therefore, the position of the hands is not so important as the whole complex of possible effects on the horse - the reins, schenkels and the body of the rider.
Equilibrium.
The first thing a beginner rider needs to learn is to maintain balance. He should be able to sit in the saddle, and not cling to the mane in despair, not to squeeze the horse’s sides with convulsions. The horseman’s body is necessarily vertically located at the deepest point of the saddle on both pelvic bones. It is important to remember that the deepest point is in the middle of the saddle, and not shifted forward or backward, although this happens in poorly made saddles, and quite often. Hands and feet have nothing to do with maintaining the equilibrium of the rider, and only with a loss of balance, when it threatens to fall to the ground, everyone clings to the horse than he can.
Most likely the horseman can learn to maintain balance if he rides a horse for a while with a step, and then a calm trot.The less instruction he receives at the same time, the easier it is for him to concentrate and learn to maintain balance. If the same novice rider comes across a shaky, well-traveled horse, then the ability to balance will develop quite quickly. It is important that the beginner first mounted the horse with gentle movements and a calm character. At first, you need to ride with stirrups in order to feel absolutely safe from the very beginning, then confidence will appear, since there will be no reason to be constrained. If the rider still has difficulties, then most often because his horse is walking at a too fast pace. In this case, it is necessary to take a calmer horse: the calmer the first rider will feel at the first stage of training, the faster he will gain confidence and learn to maintain balance.
The acquired skill (and it comes after a few lessons) must be consolidated. And for this you need to ride without stirrups, but this should be done gradually so that the novice rider does not lose confidence and does not begin to cling to the horse again, otherwise stiffness of movements and insecurity reappears, which can lead to a fall from the horse. Gradually, the rider learns to ride without stirrups, first a little, and then for a longer time, and, being in the saddle, he can turn and do gymnastic exercises. Thus, he increasingly consolidates the skill to maintain balance in the saddle.
The ability to balance in the saddle quickly comes to every novice rider. It will be fixed due to the fact that the rider will learn to control the muscles of the lumbosacral region and the body. And only then will he sit comfortably and firmly in the saddle. Here it is necessary to explain what they mean when talking about controlling the muscles of the lumbosacral region and entering the rhythm of the horse’s movement, otherwise the requirements to sit straight or move the body back will lead to the rider’s stiffness or he will have too low back, and keep his balance landing is very difficult.
Each rider must first learn to balance while riding a horse, this is just as necessary as when riding a bicycle. Only by learning to maintain balance can the rider constantly feel the rhythm of the horse’s movement, enter it and act on the horse’s body. It is very useful to ride bareback. Instead of a saddle, they put a blanket and fix it with a cable. So the rider will quickly learn to accompany the fluctuations of the horse’s back with the movement of his spine, find a single rhythm of movement.
If the rider does not have confidence in maintaining balance, then he will never become a master of equestrian sport.
The ability to balance can be considered acquired if the rider and without stirrups confidently sits on a horse making a turn or moving serpentine, can turn, do gymnastic exercises and talk.
If the rider is confidently sitting in the saddle, maintaining balance, without interfering with the horse’s movements, then the moment will soon come when the horse herself will try to maintain balance with the rider and respond to any of its effects.
Also, a rider who already has some skills should systematically ride without stirrups. If someone does not like this, then he must honestly admit that he keeps himself in a saddle and is not able to maintain balance. Otherwise, riding without stirrups should not seem uncomfortable.

Jan 26, 2011 15:24


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V. Museler. Riding Tutorial # 2641

Relaxation of the muscles.
The rider must sit naturally and naturally in the saddle, his muscles should not be constrained, that is, involuntarily strained. But this does not mean that his limbs are absolutely relaxed. The rider needs a certain muscle tension, as the gymnast strains them, preparing to perform a strength exercise on one of the shells.The difficulty is that the rider does not always realize whether his muscles are tense. But if the rider sits in the saddle uncertainly and with effort takes a certain position, clings to the mane or neck of the horse, then there is no need to talk about muscle relaxation. But as soon as the rider develops the skill to maintain balance, he will no longer be afraid of falling from the horse and will not be convulsively clutching at the mane or bow of the saddle. In this case, we can talk about the relaxation of the muscles of the rider.
One often hears that gymnastic exercises on a horse develop confidence in a rider, develop a sense of balance and promote muscle relaxation. All this is absolute truth: looking around, moving, talking and doing gymnastic exercises, the rider, without a doubt, begins to feel at ease in the saddle, gains confidence, and, consequently, his muscles relax. But this happens only when the novice rider learns to balance in the saddle and gain some confidence.
However, it is impossible to do gymnastic exercises on a horse as the basis for training novice riders, to build a training system only on this. But some trainers devote too much work and time to gymnastic exercises on a horse. This can only prevent the rider from securing his balancing skill in the saddle. Sometimes you can see that riders, whose landing was already worthy of approval, as a result of excessive enthusiasm for gymnastic exercises (playing with the ball on a horse) tend to stay on the horse only with shankels, and not at the expense of balance.
Riding in the field gives the rider the opportunity to better learn the features of the horse’s behavior, and this, in turn, adds confidence to the rider, he sits in the saddle more freely, almost at ease. This process can be compared with studying a foreign language abroad, where it is much easier to learn than with the help of teaching aids and a grammar textbook. And after a person learns spoken language, it is easier for him to learn grammar.
It should be noted another extreme when teaching horseback riding: devoting too much time to gymnastic exercises on the horse, they forget about the general physical training of the rider. Ugly posture, bad habits and stiffness, which are the result of a lack of physique and poor physical fitness, of course, affect the rider's landing. But even in this case, it is necessary to distinguish between improper landing and landing due to congenital defects of the rider: curvature of the spine, poor mobility of individual parts of the body. That is, an experienced trainer should see the difference between physical disabilities and the bad habits inherent in a novice rider before he gets into the saddle. The trainer should discuss these defects with the athlete, and best of all not during riding lessons. If the rider’s mistakes are caused by fear of too high demands or due to too fast pace, then the coach and the athlete can find ways to address them. If the cause of the mistakes lies in the physical defects or habits of the novice rider, then the trainer should give advice to which the athlete, if he wants to learn how to sit beautifully in the saddle, should listen.
In contrast to gymnastic exercises, horse exercises are used to correct posture, eliminate stiffness and should be carried out purely individually, not according to the pattern, since physical characteristics dictate a specific set of physical exercises to each athlete.
The unpleasant sensations that appear most often at the beginning of classes include hip pain that occurs when the femoral muscles are stretched. If the novice rider experiences such pain, then later the position of the pendants may be wrong with him. Only those who feel comfortable and relaxed in the saddle can work out the correct fit.If landing in the saddle causes inconvenience and it is difficult for the rider to keep his lower legs adjacent to the sides of the horse, then, most likely, his muscles and ligaments of the inner sides of the thighs are not elastic enough. Such unpleasant sensations are encountered at the beginning of training two-thirds of the riders. The reason, as already mentioned, is the strong and inelastic muscles of the inner thigh, which is especially common in adults. In most cases, this phenomenon is given too little attention. If even after some time these pains stop by themselves, which is completely natural, then the position of the schenkels may still remain wrong, and the rider himself will not understand what is the reason. And neither effort of will, nor effort will be able to save the novice rider from the stiffness of muscles, if he feels inconvenience in the saddle and can hold the body correctly only by straining the muscles of the shankels.
In this case, the following exercises should be recommended: legs apart and a stand with legs apart. This helps to stretch the inner muscles of the thighs, make them more elastic. But these exercises must be repeated daily and repeatedly in the morning, afternoon and evening.
It should be noted, however, that only gymnastic exercises cannot work out the correct position of the schenkels, so the rider must ride a horse regularly. And while frequent stretching exercises are not successful, the rider must choose a horse with less chest circumference and preferably not shaking.
Other landing defects - stiffness in the hips and joints of the extremities, curvature of the spine or hips - should also be fought. The stiffness of the joints of the hands interferes with the rider, as well as the musician when playing the piano or violin. But it is important to remember that these errors cannot be eliminated in the short time that the rider sits in the saddle.
If the novice rider does not follow the advice of the trainer, then these shortcomings will affect his landing and control of the horse will be difficult. It is then that I draw attention to the fact that too little attention is often paid to this type of gymnastic exercise.
However, one must fear that, by correcting these defects, the rider will no longer feel free and relaxed in the saddle, what happens, and quite often, although many believe that this should not be feared. It seems as if the rider only needs to be told about his shortcomings, and he will correct them. In fact, sometimes such advice is more harmful than it seems at first glance. It is not so rare to correct landing defects in the end is nothing more than an attempt to squeeze the rider into the once developed standard, although more often a different, no less unpleasant landing defect appears - the rider's stiffness.
The position of the rider's body and its limbs depends on what effect they should have on the horse. Therefore, the rider’s landing is not evaluated on its own, but only in conjunction with the sending and the feeling of contact with the horse. It is in this relationship that one must try to correct the landing. The aforesaid cannot be interpreted as if it is easy to improve the landing, on the contrary, it is very difficult: when the rider learns to understand the horse and act on it correctly, then he will be able to develop a good landing.
Each element (the beginning of movement from a place, the transition from step to trot, stop, turn, transition from step or trot to gallop) must be preceded by a collection of horses. In this case, the rider is obliged to straighten up and act on the horse with shankels. In this way, he improves his landing and at the same time feels whether he managed to assemble the horse and whether it complied with his requirements.
If the rider himself and his trainer begin each lesson in exactly this way and do everything in the order described above, then any correction of the landing is unnecessary.
The trainer - whether he monitors the execution of his preliminary command or the landing of the novice rider - does not always catch the change in the landing of the student. But for the rider, each team dictates its conditions for its implementation. This already says a lot.
On the other hand, any commands, such as “straighten up,” “sit straight,” “chest forward,” cause the rider to be constrained, since his attention is directed only to sitting straight. The rider must learn not only to sit upright, but to ride correctly.

Jan 26, 2011 15:25


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V. Museler. Riding Tutorial # 2651

How to learn to enter the rhythm of horse movement.
All difficulties come only with the transition to a lynx, when the horse begins to toss the rider. Some horses throw more, others less. The slower the movement, the easier the rider will cope with this toss. If he has to ride fast, and even on a shaking horse, then he, of course, experiences great inconvenience.
The novice rider, trying to avoid the tossing, involuntarily squeezes the sides of the horse with the pendants, but this does not achieve what he wants. As a result, the inexperienced rider develops scuffs, stiffness of movements and a feeling of insecurity.
The reason for the lag of the rider from the rhythm of the horse’s movement was discussed in the chapter “Equilibrium”. All this can be dealt with by learning to control the muscles of the lumbosacral region. Of course, a person usually makes natural movements without hesitation, but since the ability to control the lumbosacral part of the muscles plays a special role in the art of riding, this issue should be specifically addressed in order to emphasize its importance. But even if the rider learns to correctly execute movements with these muscles, this does not mean that he will be able to skillfully influence the horse from the very first steps.
As a swing can be rocked, changing the tension of the lumbosacral, so the horse can thereby be encouraged to move forward. If it is already in motion, then you can try to adapt to this, enter the rhythm of movement, accompany it with your body. If the rider already knows how to move the horse correctly, then it means that he can accompany its movements, if he does not know one of the two, then it is clear that such a rider does not know how to do either.
Many riders, even experienced ones, do not understand that the ability to enter the rhythm of a horse’s movement is the basis for a proper fit, without which there can be no subtle message. Do not think that over time it will come by itself, this needs to be learned. And I must say that a well-traveled horse is the best teacher, because it immediately reacts to the slightest muscle tension of the lumbosacral rider.
When a horse moves from a place, a rider, if he sends a message not only with the schenkels, but with the muscles of the lumbosacral and schenkels, feels that he is getting by with minimal pressure of the schenkels. The better the rider is able to use the tension of these muscles, the less pressure he gets on the schenkels.
Through the efforts of the muscles of the lumbosacral, the rider can stop the horse, while he feels that the stop is not happening as before. Without exposure to this muscle group, the horse was held in by strong pressure of the reins on his mouth. Now the rider only barely pulls the reins to stop the horse. At the moment of stopping, the rider feels like a horse brings his hind legs.
To understand the impact of the rider on the horse with the lumbosacral part, it is necessary to repeatedly repeat the beginning of the horse’s movement and stop, move from step to trot and stop, and so all the time, changing the pace, switch from step to trot and again to step, stop the horse, and then touch her again.If you don’t understand this on your horse, you need to take another well-trained training horse and ride it until this understanding comes. If, in this case, too, you cannot find contact with the horse, then most likely you will not succeed in teaching you how to ride.
Accordingly, it is first necessary to understand that the beginning of a movement from a place and a stop by the efforts of the lumbosacral region and without them are significantly different. And only the horseman, who has learned to confidently act on the horse with the muscles of the lumbosacral, is able to interfere with the strong tossing of the horse.
On a slow trot, with the same effort of the lumbosacral region, which acts at the beginning of movement and stopping, the rider's pelvis and center of gravity are shifted forward. The horseman, with the help of shankels and muscles of the lumbosacral, is as if squeezed into the saddle. So, without much effort, a closer contact is established between the rider and the horse. On well-traveled and less shaking horses, contact comes much faster. This comes about thanks to the frequent change of pace, because the correct tension of the muscles of the lumbosacral region at the beginning of the movement and when stopped is transferred to the movement in trot. The higher the horse throws up and the faster the pace of movement, the more you should strain the muscles of the lumbosacral region. If the rider believes that he has already penetrated this mystery to some extent, then his ability to operate the lumbosacral muscles should be tested on other horses.
A rider’s landing can be considered correct if on a short trot not only on one, but also on many horses, the rider does not hang out in the saddle and tolerates movement, sitting so confidently and calmly that the piece of paper laid under him on the saddle can hold.
Getting into the rhythm of a horse’s movement is always something flexible, felt that it never takes effort and is not associated with large movements. Therefore, an attentive observer can detect it not by external signs, but only as a result of effects on the horse. A rider with this skill sits comfortably on a horse and throws him less than others. The sharp movements of the horseman's pelvis, its loose fit to the saddle, or its back is too arched have nothing to do with the ability to control the muscles of the lumbosacral region. The rider, straining these muscles, can lean back a little, but this will not help him enter the rhythm of the horse.
Sometimes you can hear from the trainer that the rider must swing the body to the beat of the horse. But this advice has not helped anyone yet. Fluctuations in the beat, that is, entering the rhythm of the horse’s movement, do not appear by themselves, but arise only from the active movement of the muscles, the conscious desire to move forward, as on a swing, the translational movement arises due to the tension of the lumbosacral muscles, and simple swinging has nothing to do with has no effect on the horse.

Jan 26, 2011 15:26


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Novice riders

A good rider should feel equally confident in the saddle when riding in a closed arena, in the field and when overcoming obstacles. From the first steps of training, it was rarely possible for anyone to predict how much he would master the art of riding. The first desire of a beginner is more modest - just to learn to ride. But the beginning of riding training was the same at first for everyone.

On a calm training horse, each novice rider must sufficiently master the ride on all gait - step, trot and gallop. Of course, not everyone has the same opportunities for horse riding: one sits in the saddle only once a week, the other has more free time and interest in this sport is special, and for some people horseback riding is an addition to the profession.For some, a horse is a means of transportation, for others, comprehension of the secrets of riding becomes a long-term passion, art. And naturally, the simpler the task the novice rider sets himself, the faster he can achieve the goal. If ambition and sports excitement do not give a person peace, and champion laurels dream of him, then he has a special attitude to horse riding. But the master of equestrian sport can only be one who daily for many years improves his technique, gaining knowledge and experience, although the saying “Live and learn, always!” Remains true for such athletes.

Training an inexperienced rider begins with exercises that contribute to the development of a proper fit, while at the same time he is taught to maintain contact with the horse and act on it. It is often said that landing is the basis of riding. To some extent this is, of course, true. On the other hand, the nature of the rider’s landing depends entirely on what effect he wants to have on the horse. And landing and impact are no less determined by the presence of contact between the rider and the horse.

From the very first steps, the novice rider must learn to find this contact, to sit firmly and naturally in the saddle thanks to the ability to maintain balance. He should easily enter the rhythm of the horse’s movement and learn how to influence it with the muscles of the lumbosacral, corpus, pendants and reins. Who does not feel contact with the horse, he can not easily and firmly sit in the saddle. Such a rider in some unnatural pose "sticks" to the horse, which has nothing to do with riding. Such a landing is absolutely wrong, although it may seem true to the amateur. A good rider can be considered only one who feels contact with the horse and keeps in the saddle at ease.

Many consider themselves masters of riding, but to put it mildly, most of them clearly overestimate their abilities. Such riders put the blame on the horse, referring to some of its shortcomings, which with a competent assessment are not detected at all or do not play a significant role. Therefore, so many horses turn out to be poorly traveled, I note, by the way, that some of those that are said to be well-traveled are among them. Really good riders and well-traveled horses are very rare. And the main trouble is that few riders can pinpoint the causes of their own mistakes, find out what a horse is well or poorly ridden, and whether its shortcomings can be corrected.

And everyone who wants to master the art of riding should think about this. 99% of all horses sin by disobedience. And 99% of riders do not know how to rid their horses of this shortcoming and do not try to learn it. Presumably, they all heard that the horse must be trained to obey the promises. But only? Is it enough that they heard about it? Only few people do this. And thus they, although unintentionally, but inevitably get poorly-traveled horses. Is it really so difficult to train a horse to promises, as they say? A beginner does not know that to learn this is as easy as to get into the rhythm of a horse's movement. But 99% of all riders cannot learn to realize this fact, and therefore to work out the correct fit, because they do not know how to control the muscles of the lumbosacral spine. What every child can do on a swing is not available to most riders in the saddle. This bitter truth should make everyone who studies horseback riding think: should he not penetrate this “burning secret”.

Fig. 1. Gymnastic exercises on a horse: a, b - leaning forward and backward, c - turning the torso, d - pulling the sock with the opposite hand, e - flexing the lower back with the arm, e - pulling the elbow back, w - circular motion of the feet, h - swinging legs (shankels). At bends, when trotting, they act in the same way as at a step, making sure that the horse walks at the same pace and does not in any way stop or go on a step. In addition to the training lynx, there is the so-called line, or lightweight, lynx.It consists in the fact that the rider, standing on stirrups, feeds the body forward and upward, missing one push at this time. Having lowered into the saddle, the rider immediately rises again, etc. These lowerings and lifts should be performed rhythmically, in accordance with the rhythm of the horse's movement. The equilibrium with this lynx is no longer established in the seat, as in the training lynx, but in the foot, through the knee. The housing moves slightly forward. The emphasis on stirrups is increasing. No need to climb high from the saddle, but do it only enough to skip the pace.

Lynx can be common and added. The added trot is a very fast gait; it can reach the speed of a free gallop. While trotting, arms should not hang out, and elbows should not move away from the body. The popliteal angle will increase during advancing, and while the rider will lower into the saddle, decrease, but the knee should lie snugly on the wing of the saddle in the same place. Schenkels should always feel the sides of the horse and, if necessary, send it at the moment when the rider descends into the saddle. Particular care must be taken to ensure that the foot is parallel to the ground and that when standing on the stirrups the shenkel does not go forward, but maintains the correct position at the sides of the horse. When you get used to managing the training and drill trot in the forward direction, you can go on to study changes in direction, volts, arrivals and turns.

When learning to ride, a number of commands are used to perform various exercises. Each of the equestrians needs to know the basic ones. All teams, except for the "Smyrno" or "Reason" command, are divided into two parts - preliminary and executive. The preliminary command allows the rider to have time to figure out what methods to manage and how to influence the horse. The “Marsh” executive team at the horsemen is drawn out lingeringly - “ma-arsh”, so that the rider manages to convey his demand to the horse. Thus, having heard the preliminary command, you need to quickly figure out what needs to be done on this command, how and how to influence the horse so that it executes this command, and prepare it for the movement. At the executive command, the horse is forced to obey and perform the required movement. The most necessary commands are as follows:

"Step - ma-ah!" At the command of “Step” you realize that you need to soften the occasion and send the horse forward with the schenkels. At the command "Ma-arsh!" You send the horse and move at a step. “At a trot - ma-arsh!” - everyone is switching to a combat trot. If you need to go training trot, then the command “Training trot - ma-arsh!” Is given. “Change (or horseman) - hundred-oh-oh!” - on a preliminary command, we must realize that there will be a team “Stop”, - so you need to pull the occasion and stop moving. On the executive command “Hundred-oh-oh!” They stop the horse and stand on the command of “quietly”, the horse should stand on all four legs. “Change direction (from the corner or through the playpen) - ma-a-arsh!” Change direction do from the place where the executive team finds: if from the corner, then diagonally on the arena or the platform on which you are engaged. An executive command must be given in such a way that the turn is obtained when the horse walks six steps from the corner along a long wall or diagonally does not reach six steps to the opposite corner. Thus, the turns will come out not sharp, but smooth. Changing direction through the arena is done where the “Ma-a-rshI” team has taken you, and perpendicular to the opposite wall, changing the direction of movement. “Right (or left) back - ma-a “rsh!” - at the command “Ma-a-arsh!” they make a half-volt (semicircle) with a diameter of 5-6 m and, approaching the wall in a half-turn, move in the opposite direction. “Volt to the left (or right) - ma-a-rsh!” - according to the executive team, they make a full circle with a diameter of 8 m, moving away from the wall and going back to it, and continue moving in the original direction. “Left (or right) around - ma-a-rsh! ”- the executive command should be followed by a complete stop, and then the movement of the front legs of the horse around the rear in the specified direction.

The hind legs of the horse should turn in place, and the front legs should describe the circle, while the horse's head should look in the direction of rotation, and the axis of rotation is the inner hind leg.“To the left (or to the right) around in front - ma-a-arsh!” - the executive command should be followed by a complete stop and then the movement of the horse’s rear around the front. Her front legs should step in place, and her hind legs should describe the circumference. The horse's head should be directed towards the movement of the hind legs, and the axis of rotation should be the inner front leg. "Be back equal - ma-a-rsh!". This command is usually given from the stand position in place - you must put the horse back 3-4 steps and stop it, then repeat this movement until the command “Stop!”.

The most difficult of these exercises are turns “around” on the rear and on the front, since they require separate work of each shankel and already some skill in the interaction of the shankel, halter and body, which always act in the direction of rotation. Therefore, these exercises are used only at the end of the first year of training, when riders become more experienced. When moving from a larger to a smaller allure, such as from a gallop to a lynx or from a lynx to a step, the “March!” Command is not given, but just drawn-out commands: “Rr-lynx” or “Sha-a” -hom! ". Changes in directions, volts and arrivals can be made by a group of riders, independently and by head number. In order to make the movement “by head number”, before the preliminary command add the words: “By head number ...” For example: “By head number, right and back - ma-a-rsh!” Or “By head number change direction through the middle of the arena is ma-ah-rsh! ”, etc. On races and volts, the horse should be bent at the side along the circumference that you describe with this rotation. This bending can be achieved by acting with an internal occasion on the horse’s head and working with the schenkels, of which the outer one is laid back a little. The position that this is achieved is called the direction of the horse in the direction of rotation. At the same time, the inner shankel is, as it were, the axis of rotation.

We must learn to make a resolution in one and the other direction, going in a straight line, but here it is much more insignificant than during turns. Usually it’s enough to see the back edge of the horse’s eye, but when walking in a straight line, you need to make sure that the horse does not tilt the butt to the side, but put the hind legs in the front track.

Having well understood what a decree is, and having learned how to easily achieve it, you can move on to the next gait - a gallop.

When riding in the arena, along the wall, at the command “Gallop - ma-a-rsh!” The horse is always lifted from the inner leg, namely: when riding to the left - from the left, while riding to the right - from the right. If the horse is walking with its outer leg, such a gallop is called a counter-gallop. During the ride, you must always carefully listen to the movement of the horse and try to prevent disobedience in a timely fashion. If the horse is trying to speed up the gallop, the shenkel should be completely calm, and the action of the occasion reinforced. For a rider who knows how to sit well on a training and drill trot and is able to perform all of the above exercises, galloping does not present any difficulty.

Normal gait speeds: step - 10 min 1 km, training lynx - 7-8 min 1 km, lynx lynx - 5 min 1 km, added lynx - 3-4 min 1 km, canter gallop - 7-8 min 1 km, gallop free - 3-4 min 1 km, gallop field - 2-2.5 min 1 km, quarry - gallop at full capacity of the horse (quick gallop).

When you learn to maintain a proper fit and feel at ease when riding without trotters, you can jump over obstacles.

The horse, while jumping, describes the trajectory, and the task of the rider is not to get out of balance with the horse during the entire jump, otherwise he will prevent her from making the jump correctly and the trajectory of the jump will be disrupted.

In order not to get out of balance with the horse, you must forward the body forward before the jump, keeping your back straight, and hands with a reason, unclenching at the elbows, forward forward as much as the horse needs, so that it can stretch its head and neck. During the jump it is very important not to interfere with the freedom of the head, neck and lower back of the horse, because thanks to them, it is balanced at the moment of passing over the obstacle and at the time of landing. The slightest hindrance of the rider leads to the fact that the horse violates the correct flight path and clings to the obstacle with front or rear legs.

It is recommended that the beginner hold on to the mane at the first jumps - this will protect the horse from tugging by the occasion and create a more stable jumping position for the rider, making it easier to maintain a correct fit.

After you get comfortable with jumping, you must gradually accustom yourself to jumping, not holding on to the mane, giving your hands forward about. After the jump, when the horse has already touched the ground with its hind legs, the rider puts his hands and body back into position in accordance with the speed and gait that he rode before the jump and which he was going to go on.

Jumping training begins with stepping over a pole or log lying on the ground. Then you need to do the same thing at a trot, and if everything goes smoothly, that is, the horse willingly goes for a jump and the rider, having mastered the jump, keeps the correct landing, you can start jumping from a gallop.

Gradually, as you learn, you can raise and expand obstacles, but in the first year of study it is not recommended to put them above one meter. Better to work on polishing the jumping technique.

It is necessary to familiarize the rider with all types of obstacles, diversifying them, putting them in different directions, as well as in systems, at one, two and three pace. The word "pace" here means the distance in meters captured by a horse at one pace of a gallop. When compiling an obstacle system, the trainer must take into account that if he puts an obstacle at the same pace, he must set them apart at a distance of 3–3.5 m, if at two paces, then at a distance of 7–7.5 m, if at three paces, then at a distance of 10.5-11 m, etc.

Jumps in systems, and especially without stirrups, work out a relaxed, correct fit well.

There are a number of standard obstacles that every equestrian needs to familiarize themselves with - any of them can be encountered in classification competitions for sports or in any official competitions. All high-altitude obstacles may have a ditch or a block in front of or behind themselves. They begin to jump through the ditches from a small width to 0.5 m and then gradually expand them.

If a horse or rider does not jump well over some obstacle, this means that they are still poorly prepared. In this case, you must immediately lower the requirement and jump over the obstacles that they can do.

One of the most famous American equestrian trainers, Jane Marshall Dillon, believes that the rider, both in ordinary riding and in overcoming obstacles, must obey the following 10 commandments:

1. Head raised, rider looking forward.

2. The shoulders are deployed.

3. The arms from the shoulder are freely lowered down and bent at the elbows.

4. From the elbow to the snaffle - a straight line.

5. The body is located as close as possible to the bow of the saddle, the seat during the jump releases the saddle, while the body should not be pulled too far forward on the horse's neck. An imaginary vertical line drawn through stirrups should leave the lower body on the other side of the legs as a “counterweight”.

6. The body is tilted sufficiently forward to help balance the legs.

7. The inner surface of the thighs, knees and upper calves is in easy contact with the saddle and sides of the horse. This contact becomes more dense during the jump and the last pace of the horse in front of him.

8. The legs from the knees “go back” somewhat, but only so that the knights are strictly vertical and the shenkel is pressed to the horse’s sides immediately behind the girths.

9. The foot is slightly turned outward so that the soles of the boots are visible to a person standing on the ground. This helps to keep the knees pressed to the saddle, and the feet to the inner arms of the stirrups.

10. The feet are pressed against the inner arms of the stirrups, the platform of the stirrup under the wide part of the foot or slightly behind, the heels are down, the socks are only slightly deployed (about 20-30 degrees).

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V. Museler. Riding Tutorial # 2661

Muscle control of the lumbosacral
The efforts of the lumbosacral during riding are necessary for any impact on the horse. Without being able to properly act on the horse with the muscles of the lumbosacral, one cannot learn to make a promise. This can only be learned in practice, and only if the rider is not constrained.

When mastering this technique, the rider can talk, whistle or sing. It is possible that then he will not be shackled.
In its natural position, the human spine is not a straight line. This can be easily verified. When the muscles of the lumbosacral region are tense, the lower end of the spine (with the sacrum forming the connection between the spine and the pelvis) is slightly moved forward. The pelvis is posteriorly displaced downward and raised in front, so that both pelvic bones move forward.
The opposite effect is achieved if the spine bends forward, when the pelvis leans forward, and its bones move back.
The muscles of the lumbosacral can be strained from both or only on one side, therefore, both the pelvic bones and only the right or left can be advanced.

Whether the rider has learned to control the lumbosacral muscles can only be checked during his riding, and best of all on a horse with a sensitive back.
The movement with which the muscles of the lumbosacral section are strained can be best understood by the rider by becoming familiar with the following exercises.

Tension of the right and left sides of the muscles of the lumbosacral
1. A person swinging on a swing, while moving forward, strains the muscles of the lumbosacral, and when moving backward, relaxes them.
2. A person lying on his back can raise his pelvis only by straining the muscles of the lumbosacral region.
3. A person standing in front of the table can torso promote a book lying at the edge of the table. In this example, the difference in muscle tension of the lumbosacral region is most clearly visible. If the pelvis moves forward, as required when riding, then when the back is bent, the pelvis moves as if backward. This is associated with a protrusion of the chest and reduction of the shoulder blades.
4. Sitting on a chair and leaning on its back, you can push the hips and pelvis forward by tension of the lumbosacral muscles.
5. One who sits on a narrow, easy-to-tip stool, a paper basket, or something like that, legs wide apart, can only overturn the stool with the muscles of the lumbosacral region, provided that his legs are not in front of the center of gravity , but stand to the right or left. The novice rider should not be content to listen to these explanations and study the drawings: even the person who understood the movement has not yet felt it. You need to try to perform the necessary movement, and when you learn to confidently strain the lumbosacral muscles, you should do special exercises on the horse, and do them until you learn how to use the muscle tension of the lumbosacral region with full knowledge of the matter.

Unilateral muscular tension of the lumbosacral
As with the previous exercises, the one-sided tension of the lumbosacral muscles is very important. Riding a horse with taking, during turns and landing at a gallop depends on whether the rider has learned to act on the horse with muscles of the lumbosacral spine. Such movements must be worked out until the rider has the confidence that he has mastered this technique.
1. By clicking on one side of the swing seat, you can make them swing wryly.
2. A person lying on his back can lift only the right or left side of the pelvis, tensing the corresponding muscles of the lumbosacral region.
3.If you are standing in front of the table, you can only advance the book lying obliquely on the edge of the table by tensioning the right or left side of the lumbosacral region. You can also learn to control the muscles of the lumbosacral region in the very first hours of horseback riding, which happens quite rarely, or you need to spend a lot of time comprehending this art. The degree of muscular tension can be different, and in accordance with this, the horse feels a strong or weak promise. You can move the pelvis forward more or less strongly, you can also strain the muscles of the lumbosacral only to avoid sliding the pelvis back, and you can relax the entire lumbosacral. Therefore, this is not about various effects. You must try to do all this yourself, so as not to be unfounded.
It should never be forgotten that the position of the lumbosacral region is the basis for the correct fit, the start of the horse's movement from the place and its collection. Without the use of these muscles, any sending and stopping a horse without strong pressure on the reins is unthinkable. If the rider has not learned to control the muscles of the lumbosacral, then there can be no question of a proper fit, and without this there can be no correct effect on the horse. If this basis is not there, then the rider can not counteract the disobedience of the horse in any way.
With tension of the lumbosacral, the following errors are common:
1 Before riding a horse, the rider did not work out enough movement, believing that he could be content with a theoretical understanding of it. When he gets into the saddle, he does not know which muscle groups he should strain.
2. Before sitting in the saddle, the rider had enough exercise in tension of the lumbosacral muscles. But this skill can be considered acquired only when, when starting to move, moving to a lynx or riding a horse, the rider fully controls the situation. At the same time, one should not forget that the Shenkel must constantly be in contact with the sides of mercy.
If you cannot comprehend it on one horse, then the horse needs to be changed.
It is often said that the rider’s muscles work well in the lumbosacral region, work great or don't work at all. These expressions can easily be misleading. All riders know how to act with this muscle group, only to varying degrees. The muscles of the lumbosacral region are so strong that they can function for a very long time. Sometimes pain occurs in the sacral region, but this is most often not a consequence of muscle tension in the lumbosacral region, but the result of a tossing, riding too long. But such a phenomenon is unlikely to occur as a result of excessive tension of the lumbosacral region.

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V. Museler. Riding Tutorial # 2671

Rider's contact with a horse
By the contact of the rider with the horse is understood the consciousness-dictated assessment of one's own landing, influences and assumptions, as well as the perception of the rhythm of movement and attention of the horse. The rider must be able to accurately evaluate each horse's movement, to balance its impact with the tasks that it requires the horse to perform. Experience tells the rider whether his effort is sufficient or too great, whether it should be repeated or the goal is achieved.
No one can teach this to the horseman; he himself must understand and feel that contact with the horse has been achieved. In this case, the trainer will contribute to the accumulation of experience, give explanations on those issues that are not clear to the beginning rider, offer new exercises to consolidate the already acquired skill, and teach the rider to control himself.

Strict self-control is required for any action of the rider on the horse, during sending, during upsetting, etc., because only thanks to this the skill is awakened, formed and gradually developed by the beginning rider. The preparation process is more successful if the rider first learns to perform simpler tasks, and then moves on to more complex ones, provided that he has mastered the simple ones correctly.If the rider is not able to perform any difficult task, then he should not be content with its incorrect execution, but must ask the trainer how to do it better. If the novice rider does this tactfully and modestly, the coach will try to help. The coach’s attempt to deceive his student will be regarded as indifference, which will negatively affect their further joint work. Student interest always stimulates teacher interest. This position is better explained by example. To stop the horse, the trainer requires the rider to simultaneously act on the horse with the muscles of the lumbosacral, schenkels and reins. The horseman, however, feels that if he acts excessively with the shankels, the horse does not stop, but strives to move forward. Therefore, the novice rider tries to abandon the impact of the shankels and pulls the reins harder. Most riders are faced with this contradiction, but for some reason prefer not to talk about it. There is a mistake in this. The rider should talk about this with his trainer, and then try to correctly stop on another, more sensitive horse, until he understands how to properly stop the horse. If riders change frequently, the susceptibility of horses prepared for horseback riding (often put the blame on a horse) dulls quite quickly, no matter how well they are ridden: most often this happens with rental horses. Therefore, it is not always possible to learn how to properly act on a horse, which is given to a novice rider in riding lessons. But a change of horses is necessary, as this gives the rider the opportunity to test his skill again and again. And each horse perceives the effects of the rider differently. And the rider should recheck his skill again and again and coordinate the message with the susceptibility of the horse.
The best riding teacher, of course, is a well-traveled horse. Tirelessly and patiently, she makes the rider understand what he did wrong. You only need to learn to understand it. Most novice riders are not able to understand the “language” of the horse and considers themselves entitled to reproach the “stupid cattle” for being insensitive and poorly driven.
The horse's responses are of a different nature. A wave of the head, as it were, means a sigh of the horse: “Well, don’t tear my mouth like that!” The blow of the hind leg on the shankel says: “You tickled me with a spur.” Tail swing corresponds: “You are too restless to act with schenkels. You tickle me with a spur. ” A horse can only be immune if the rider’s hands make rude movements. Action, as always in life, causes opposition. If the rider complains about the insensibility of the horse's mouth, then in most cases he signs in his own inability. Of course, the horse's mouth gradually becomes less susceptible, because novice riders too often pull the reins. If the horse is treated gently and delicately, then after a short time the most stubborn horse will again well perceive all the effects of the rider.
Most riders, speaking about the ability to control a horse, think first of all about the skill of their hands, but the most important thing in horseback riding is not the ability to wield their hands or shankels, but the correct fit. The first opportunity to be convinced of this is given to the beginning rider already at the beginning of training, when the horse at rest stops one of the hind legs to rest, putting it back. Most often this happens after the horse stops completely. The novice rider suddenly notices that on one side his landing is deeper than on the other. But he still does not understand the reasons for this phenomenon. Often you can see how the rider tries to level off, sitting down comfortably, straightening up, standing on stirrups, again sitting in the saddle, and in the end put up with the inevitable.He tries not to pay attention to the fact that he was not able to sit down normally. But if he had forced the horse to stand on all four legs with the pressure of the shankels, he would immediately have felt that he was again sitting in the saddle straight.
This example reminds that a novice rider should pay attention even to moments that seem not very important at first glance. The rider should not rely on the coach in everything. Only one who constantly monitors his actions, takes thoughtful attitude to training and comprehends each new sensation will gain the ability.
So, each rider himself, better than anyone else, can judge whether he has learned to correctly follow the rhythm of the horse’s movement, because only he senses how he is thrown up in the saddle and finds a way to avoid this. If the rider is not sure that by the weight of his body he can hold a sheet of paper laid on the saddle, then he should not trust compliments stating that he allegedly has a beautiful fit and the correct position of the shankels. In this case, the rider must admit to himself that he has not yet learned the most important thing - landing.
Many beginner riders, and even those who have been riding for a long time, honestly admit that they do not feel when the horse is galloping incorrectly. Whoever does not understand this is sitting in the saddle incorrectly and cannot enter the rhythm of a gallop.
Not all riders can really understand what is meant by the terms “in occasion”, “before the occasion” or “behind the occasion”. Since this issue is very important, a bit later we will analyze it in detail.
What each rider has learned, he can see for himself by testing his skill on any well-traveled horse.
On a horse with a soft, sensitive back, the rider can check whether he has learned to correctly enter the rhythm of the horse’s movement, whether the movements of his hands are rude.
On a horse that is not afraid of tickling, the rider can check whether he is holding the shankel calmly.
The better the horse is driven and more sensitive, the more clear it will be. Most riders are satisfied with themselves and are afraid to subject themselves to such tests, and in case of failure, only the horse is blamed for everything. To everything else, they are offended when their skill is questioned.
So, the ability to ride a horse comes with practice, but only to those who are self-critical, carefully listen to the advice and instructions of a trainer and engage in equestrian sports with great desire. Otherwise, even with the so-called experience and practice, a person can learn little.

How to learn to drive a horse
The horseman can act on the horse with shankels, reins, his body and lumbosacral torso. First of all, the horse is affected by the shankels, forcing it to move forward, restraining the reins. Actions by the hull, and especially by the lumbosacral, form the necessary bridge connecting these two different effects of the rider on the horse. These effects will be discussed separately later.
The efforts with which it is necessary to perform individual influences are determined by the degree of movement and susceptibility of the horse. None of the effects can be exerted with such force that there was a forceful compulsion of the horse. Depending on whether the effect is applied in combination with others, various combinations arise. Such combinations of effects are called promises. There are messages to the beginning of the horse’s movement, moving from a step to a lynx, from a lynx to a gallop, taking to the right, taking to the left, stopping, upsetting, etc. Each of these messages consists of many actions that must be carried out simultaneously so that the horse I realized what the rider wants from her. Therefore, we are not talking about sendings with shankels or reins, but only about impacts with shankels, reins, etc.
That is why the novice rider must first try to exert individual influences and only then, when he has mastered them enough, try to make promises. Riding a horse, unfortunately, this is impossible, because the horse correctly responds only to the complex of influences that it perceives as promises. If the rider wants to exert influence only on the reins, without simultaneously exerting influence on the lumbosacral part, with the help of schenkels and without making the necessary effort, then the horse will not be able to understand what she should do. The horse will raise or lower its head, succumb to the pressure of the snaffle or counter-pressure, it alone will not understand what the rider wants from it.
In accordance with this, the novice rider from the first steps must learn the correct messages. In this case, one should start with the simplest ones: the message is to start moving from a place, switch from a step to a lynx and stop. These messages are easier to fulfill than others, because the necessary actions with the right and left scanners are carried out uniformly and without moving the case.
It is more difficult to carry out the assumptions in which the effects of the reins and the shankels on the right and left are not applied simultaneously. They must first be worked out, standing still, since during the movement the rider will be constrained, until he learns to maintain good balance, correctly and quickly enter the rhythm of the horse. Most often, such difficulties arise when the rider is required to perform such various actions. The corners of the arena are calm, the horse traveled by itself, and the novice rider can learn to transfer the center of gravity inward, although he still does not know how to properly fulfill the desired message.
Therefore, turning the horse on the front and hind legs are necessary preparatory exercises. When performed at a slow pace, the novice rider will learn to finely coordinate his influences so that the horse perceives them as the right message. The skills developed at the same time will become the basis for the further growth of the rider's skill. The finer and less noticeable to the outsider is the impact of the rider on the horse, the assumptions, the more perfect is the harmony between the rider and the horse.

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V. Museler. Riding Tutorial # 2681

Scannel Management
Correct exposure with the shankel requires that the rider’s heel be lowered, this favorably affects both the landing depth and the position of the knees and allows the rider to effortlessly act on the horse, straining the muscles of the legs.
Schenkels act on the horse in the following way: send the horse right behind the cinch (the rider will understand this during the first hours of riding, when pressing or tapping the schenkels makes the horse move forward), at a distance from the palm of the hand behind the cinch, dictates or prevents the horse from moving to the side, keeps the previous direction.
The rider will get acquainted with this effect very soon when he is convinced that using the action of the shenkel at a distance of the width of the palm of the hand behind the cinch, the horse can be made to take a step with his back foot inside the arena, and after acting with the other shenkel, a step in the opposite direction.
Consequently, the shenkel acts on the hind leg of the horse on which side it is located. The ability to act on a horse with shankels is improved by the rider to such an extent that it becomes a reflex movement. Over time, the rider will learn to measure the pressure and strength with the help of shenkels.
The effects of pressing or tapping the shankels, as well as the force of their pressure or tapping, all depend on the susceptibility of the horse.
The sending action with the schenkle does not follow from mechanical compulsion, but, so to speak, in itself. The value of pressure with a shenkel should be “explained” to a young horse with a whip.Sometimes the perception of the impact by the shankel in a horse can become dull, so it is important that the rider acts with the shankels with the same strength and always evenly. To do this, it is necessary that the shankels are in a calm symmetrical position.

Schenkel position
Using the shankels, the rider maintains constant light contact with the horse’s body, senses it through the bootleg.
Therefore, the rider's legs should not be extended, otherwise it would have to make too large movements when exposed, and this would scare the horse. Dangling shankels baffle the horse, as does the dangling motive.
But it is also impossible to squeeze the horse all the time with the shankels, the muscles of the lower leg get tired, the rider ceases to control the force of pressure.
For short moments, the pressure of the schenkels can become stronger, but it is impossible, like ticks, to bite the schenkels into the sides of the horse, which is sometimes portrayed by incompetent authors in novels about dashing riders. The lower the pressure with the shankels, the less the rider gets tired, the better the mutual understanding between him and the horse.
The position of the shankels should be natural and not cause the rider any inconvenience. Beginning riders in this regard often have difficulties, and they can be avoided only with the help of special exercises.
The rider does not need to maintain a certain angle between the thigh and lower leg, since this angle depends on the length of his legs and the roundness of the sides of the horse. The longer the rider’s legs and the smaller the circumference of the horse’s body, the sharper this angle will be, the shorter the rider’s legs and the larger the circumference of the horse’s body, the larger the angle. In accordance with this, the rider must ride a narrower or wider horse with different lengths of dragons.

Standing stirrups
Comparison of the length of the putisch with the length of the arm is approximately true. But you can correctly set the length of the tramp, only sitting in the saddle.
The butts are too long if you have to lower your socks to keep the stirrups, while, incidentally, the rider loses contact with the horse’s body.
Putischiki are too short if the fit of the shins to the sides of the horse is so strong that it becomes inconvenient to control the shankels. This occurs because too short puttails raise the legs and knees and thereby push the rider's seat back from the deepest point of the saddle. Thus, the rider loses confidence in his landing and involuntarily clings to the sides of the horse with pendants.
If the length of the putlis is correct, then nothing prevents the pendants from conveniently maintaining contact with the sides of the horse; in this position, with raised toe, the stirrups themselves will fall under the foot if the rider suddenly loses them. Putische should not be twisted, it should fit snugly against the shankel. The twisted tramp interferes with the proper control of the horse, in addition, the rider may lose stirrups.
The stirrup should be under the metatarsal part of the rider's foot so that nothing interferes with the mobility of the ankle joint. The rider should touch the stirrup with the inner side of the foot so that the outer edge of the foot lies slightly higher than the side facing the torso of the horse. Thanks to this, it is significantly easier to achieve the correct position of the shenkel and knee. While riding in the field, stirrups are pulled up by two or three holes, to overcome high obstacles - by three or five holes, and for racecourse races, they are pulled even shorter, and the foot enters the stirrup before lifting.

Knee position
The knee should not be too high. This is not necessary in order for it to act in any way, but because a higher or lower position of the knee is associated with the position of the shankels and the seat. The horse should be covered as tightly as possible with shankels in order to have a large area of ​​contact with its sides. Highly raised knee puts the shenkel almost in horizontal position, the seat moves back. The rider himself must judge whether he holds his knees correctly and be able to lower them if necessary.When riding with taking, at all turns and at a gallop, the inner knee and heel should be lowered below. The rider will be able to do this if he understands the meaning of such a technique. Together with muscle tension of the lumbosacral part of the rider, they are taught to lower both knees if the right and left sides of the lumbosacral muscles are tensed (see Fig. 14), or lower the inner knee when one side of the lumbosacral section is strained. These movements are associated with the movement of one or both sciatic bones, because the same muscles partially come into play. If the rider understood the meaning of the movement itself, then it is easy for him to simultaneously lower his knee.
However, lowering the knee has its limits:
1. Do not lose contact of the shankels with the horse’s body. It happens with tall horsemen with long legs sitting on small horses,
2. Schenkels should not be placed too far behind, they should be near the cinch, since with their help the rider controls the horse,
3. You can’t lose the strong support in the saddle, otherwise the landing will be incorrect.
By closing of the shankels is understood the pressure and tight fit of the knees of the rider to the body of the horse.
The knee joints allow movements with the schenkels, so nothing should impede their mobility. It is natural that the knees do not always fit snugly on the sides of the horse. This would prevent the management of the shankels.
Compression of the shankels is necessary only in exceptional cases, so that the rider can get a solid support for the knees, raised by tucked up treadmills, and this technique - closing the shankels - is most often used in races and jumping. You can achieve a better closure of the knees in a light trot without stirrups, but only those riders who have the correct fit and keep them in the saddle can do so easily.

The position of the rider's feet
The socks of the rider's legs are directed forward obliquely. Their position is developed by itself. If the socks of the rider’s legs are directed exactly forward, then he can’t exert the necessary pressure with the pendants and therefore cannot achieve the desired effect on the horse. If the toes of the legs are directed to the sides at a right angle, then the shankel squeezes the sides of the horse too much and the rider can not act on the horse properly.
If the horseman asks someone to determine the correct position of the shankels, then he is acting unreasonably. Everyone should judge this for himself, because only he can feel whether the position of the schenkels is convenient, whether the length of the knights is chosen correctly, whether he can maintain prolonged contact with the horse, and is able to properly act on it. But even the most experienced rider must be controlled to make sure his landing is correct and his ability to act on the horse. For the same reason, many are even experienced. riders must ride regularly without stirrups. And beginner riders should do this all the time.
The rider needs to check from time to time whether he really has contact with the horse’s body or whether he is mistaken. The unilateral influence of the shankel forces the horse to make a step backward in one direction, and then in the other. This can be done on the spot and while driving. This movement is so imperceptible that no one will pay attention to it, and the rider will know whether he was deceived in his feelings or not and whether he needs to change the position of the shankels. The more a rider controls himself, the better. Any seemingly correct position of the shankels does not make sense if it does not help the rider to properly and subtly influence the horse.

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V. Museler. Riding Tutorial # 2691

Exposure to the housing. Maintaining balance
The horseman's body, like any other physical body, has a center of gravity.If the rider holds the center of gravity in the correct position, then his body is in a state of equilibrium. A line drawn through the center of gravity is called the axis of the center of gravity. Every physical body has only one center of gravity, and only one axis can pass through it. Every body can have one or several points of support: the table stands on four (like a horse) or on three legs (the rider maintains balance while sitting in the saddle on two pelvic bones). If at the same time the center of gravity is stationary, then the horseman's body is in equilibrium. If the rider changes his position, which is possible with every movement, then the position of the center of gravity will also change.
The center of gravity of a rider sitting directly on a horse is above the center of gravity of the horse. The axes of both centers of gravity coincide. But this is provided that the horse stands on all four legs.
Any movement of the horse (even extension of the neck or lowering of the head), any turn to the left or right shift more or less the center of gravity. The rider, however, should coordinate his center of gravity with the center of gravity of the horse, if possible, that is, the rider must be able to balance.
This, of course, is pure theory, but it is the foundation of riding skill. And the ability of a horse rider to understand the theoretical foundation and managed to put it into practice depends on his ability to maintain balance in the saddle.
If the horse and rider are one, the horses are easier to carry the rider, and the rider is easier to control the horse. So the porter balances with the suitcases, so the equilibrium law uses the tightrope walker, who better than anywhere else can observe the effect of the equilibrium law.

Balance and body control
If the horse moves, then the rider, in accordance with its speed, must move his center of gravity forward, so that he is in front of the center of gravity of the horse. This is called accompaniment or entering the rhythm of the horse. If the rider is behind the rhythm of movement, then he loses contact with the horse and, as they say, allows it to drive itself.
Therefore, novice riders must fulfill two requirements:
a) constantly coordinate his center of gravity with the center of gravity of the horse,
b) sit in the saddle firmly at its deepest point.
Both of these requirements are not always consistent. The rider can move the center of gravity forward only by tilting the hull; if he does, he is forced to stand on the stirrups and squeeze the horse with the locks - the inner sides of the thighs (landing “in front” or semi-landing).
With slow movement, on short varieties of gait (step, collected lynx, collected gallop) this contradiction is still not so noticeable, but it is still felt, otherwise the novice rider would not have difficulty entering the rhythm of the horse’s movement. The critical moment is always the beginning of the movement from the place when the rider leans back by inertia.
Therefore, the promise of the beginning of the movement, like any impact by the muscles of the lumbosacral region and the pimples, exactly corresponds to the ability to maintain balance, which allows the rider to sit firmly in the saddle and at the right time enter the rhythm of the horse. The rider, acting on the horse with the shankels and lumbosacral, leans in the saddle and shifts its center of gravity forward. This helps him to avoid tossing and to correctly enter the rhythm of the horse. At the same time, the novice rider continues to sit correctly and firmly in the saddle: at any time he is ready to act on the horse - stop it, turn it, adjust it, etc., it will not fly out of the saddle even if the horse stumbles and immediately gives it up forward. In short, the rider can still clearly control the horse.

When landing “in front” (semi-landing), the rider, balancing on the horse, does not have a strong support in the saddle, so as not to fall if the horse stumbles or is frightened, he must tighten his knees, which, of course, is very difficult, and to fulfill any promise take a proper fit first. An experienced rider can instantly take the right position in the saddle at any time, without disturbing the horse, because he already knows how to enter the rhythm of its movement. If the rider has not learned how to properly sit in the saddle, then he will never be able to make sends when landing “in front”.
With faster movement, the contradiction between the requirement to sit correctly in the saddle and the need to coordinate the position of one's own center of gravity with the center of gravity of the horse becomes even more noticeable. This contradiction ultimately leads to the fact that the rider has to switch from added to reduced trot, if he can no longer accompany the movement of the horse. For this reason, on the collected gallop, he must enter the rhythm of movement. If the movement is even faster - on a galloping gallop or when overcoming obstacles - then the rider must stand on stirrups, otherwise the correct accompaniment is unlikely to be possible. In this case, he can close his knees and wrap his arms around the horse’s neck.
So, a modern race landing in no way contradicts the requirements of the classical art of riding, while the old race landing, which was considered canonical, went against the law of maintaining equilibrium.
Also, the rider’s landing while jumping over obstacles is fully consistent with the desire for harmony, the highest demand of classical riding art.

Body impact
Does the novice rider affect the horse by tilting the body forward or backward?
Although the horse’s forward movement requires the rider’s fitness, still by shifting his center of gravity forward or backward he cannot have a significant effect on the horse.
This happens because the rider, tilting the upper body forward or backward, loses a strong support in the saddle and involuntarily changes its effects with the lumbosacral part and the shenkels.
You might think that tilting the upper part of the horseman's body forward will cause the horse to increase speed.

But if with a faster movement, the rider is forced to tilt the upper part of the body forward, then he will not achieve this increase in speed. In the same way, one could assume that the deviation of the hull back, and therefore the displacement of the center of gravity, restrains the horse. But most likely, this only accelerates it, since the deviation of the body back often accompanies the muscular tension of the lumbosacral region. By itself, deviation of the upper torso back does not affect the horse, as it is not always associated with tension of the lumbosacral muscles

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V. Museler. Riding Tutorial # 2701

Cornering Balance
As soon as the horse bends to the right or left, takes to the side or turns, it somewhat transfers the center of gravity in this direction - depending on the degree of bending. When cornering on the go, in order to overcome the action of centrifugal force, the horse leans to the side
turning. And if the rider wants to maintain balance, then he must shift his center of gravity to the appropriate side. This is not difficult to do, since the horse’s side turned to turn becomes more sloping. And the rider can shift the center of gravity to the left or right. When moving the center of gravity in the right direction, it loads the internal pelvic bone more than the external. The feeling of correct landing appears already in the first hours of riding, when the rider every time he passes the corners of the arena feels that he is sliding to the outside, if he, like a cyclist, does not lean in the direction of rotation.
The rider who believes that he will reach the desired position of the center of gravity is wrong if he tilts the upper part of the torso. In this case, he seems to be cracking in the thigh, but does not achieve the desired result.
If the rider, being in perfect harmony with the horse, reins and schenkels wants to maintain long, light contact with him, then he must not forget about the accompanying movement of the horse with his body.
With a shankel, a rider acts on the hind legs of a horse if the shankels are in firm contact with its sides: the inner shankel (facing the arena) is adjacent to the cinch, and the outer one is located at a distance of the width of the palm of the hand behind the cinch.
The rider's hands accompany a slight turn of the shoulders in relation to the position of the hips. Therefore, the inner arm goes back, in accordance with the rotation of the body, and the outer arm, forward. The horseman takes an inclined position, although with a cursory glance it seems that he is sitting upright.
At volt, the horse leans inward. The center of gravity of the rider in this case is not above the center of gravity of the horse and must be moved inside, which is dictated by the action of centrifugal force.
The change in the position of the outer shoulder in a bend is clearly visible here:

The horseman himself can check whether he is sitting correctly in the saddle, throwing stirrups on the turn and moving the shenkel away from the sides of the horse. If he begins to crawl to the outside, then it means he is sitting wrong.

Side impact
The area of ​​the horse's support along its axis is very narrow. If the center of gravity of the rider coincides with the center of gravity of the horse, then it will immediately feel the slightest deviation of the rider to the side. Therefore, by transferring his center of gravity, the rider can induce the horse to transfer its center of gravity. This is called impact housing. Applied correctly, the impact of the body is almost imperceptible to the inexperienced eye, since a too steep tilt would be a mistake. The horse always adjusts to the rider. And the rider, in turn, must be able to find contact with the horse, this is the basis for the rider's correct landing at all turns, side steps, movement with acceptance and at a gallop. Only this relationship, resulting from the subtle interaction of the rider with the horse, is the basis of the rider's skill. Basically, it is based on any assumptions and the ability to ride a horse by a small expenditure of energy. Therefore, the art of riding, achieved by the rider, does not lose with time, but is increasingly improved.
Any inclination of the horseman's body to the right or left prompts the horse either to deviate in this direction from the initial movement or to bend, depending on how it is affected by the lumbosacral, reins and shenkels.
At the same time, I repeat once again: the inclination of the hull should be so slight that it will seem to the inexperienced eye that the rider is sitting upright. The novice rider must remember that the inclination of the hull should be slight, noticeable only to the experienced eye. If the deviation of the hull is too strong, then the rider has an incorrect landing.

Jan 26, 2011 15:27


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V. Museler. Riding Tutorial # 2711

Reins
Too many influences on the hands or on reins are often mentioned. Almost all riders are prone to excessive hand work. Everyone believes that they know how to wield their hands, because they often have to resort to their help in everyday life. Many do not know how to speak, but to gesticulate the master.
Often they say about any rider: “He has golden hands.” The rider's hands are good only when they are calm, and this is possible only if the rider has a good fit, if he is firmly and naturally sitting in the saddle, knows how to properly strain the lumbosacral region, can enter the rhythm of the horse’s movement and everything This coordinates the impact of the shankels with the movement of the hands holding the reins. All this deserves praise in the first place, and only then you can pay attention to the rider's hands.

Hand exposure is important, but by no means as much as it is believed. The softer the rider’s hands are, the more perfect his ride. In a sharp movement of the hand is a great danger. Therefore, the rider's hands, as a rule, act very gently, carefully.
The rider can work properly with his hands only if the shaking to which the body is exposed does not affect their movements. The arm in the shoulder and forearm, muscles and joints should be completely relaxed.
Before the rider learns to maintain balance, it’s better not to give him reins for some time. And after he learns to maintain balance, his hands will no longer be so constrained. But even then, most riders move their arms excessively to the beat with the movement of the hull. Hands should move in the direction opposite to the movement of the torso, but so delicately so as not to pull the reins in time. A good trot rider will not spill water from a glass. This is not a joke at all: each rider should try to do it himself.
Despite the tossing of the horse, the rider can calmly work with his hands only watching them and realizing the need for this. It is most convenient to work with hands if they are busy with something.
If all attention is paid only to the hands, then in most cases they fall into the first mistake - the hands become chained. If you take a whip or stick in each hand, then by the movement of these objects you can judge whether the hands are at rest. Thus, the ability to work with hands is developed.
Hand movements should be controlled later. I just want to note that riders with really calm hands are very rare.
Hands should be close to each other in front of the rider’s chest at such a distance from the rider’s body that at any moment he can move them forward or backward without changing the landing.

The forearms with the humerus form an approximately right angle. The hands are relaxed in the shoulders, and the elbows should not rest against the torso, because from this the landing will be constrained, tense. The position of the hands depends on the height of the horse’s head. The forearm and the corresponding occasion, when viewed from the side, form a straight line.
The movements of the horseman's hips must be consistent with the movements of the forearms. The result is a so-called closed landing. To achieve it, you do not need to press your hands to the case, but, on the contrary, move the case forward.
Any impact on the reins can only be performed subtly when the rider makes good contact between the hands and mouth of the horse. If the reins sag, then you can’t subtly influence the horse, but you can only pull them.
So, for any impact on the reins, you first need to train the horse to the promise, i.e. learn to act not by the reins, but by the muscles of the lumbosacral region and the shenkels.
Reins:
1. Both occasions at the same time or one of them is given, for this the hands are rotated accordingly.
2. a set of reins on both sides or only on one side while they are pulled a little. In this case, in no case should you move your whole arm and pull the reins, because the horse is stronger and always pulls out the winner.
3. The reins are held passively, the hands remain in place.

If the rider tries to control only the reins:
1. When giving the reins there will be an error consisting in their sagging. This cannot be allowed, but only messages can prevent it.
2. When recruiting reins, an error also occurs when the rider pulls them towards himself. It is also impossible to do this, and only messages can prevent it.
3. With passive guidance, nothing will happen. It is passive driving that is the most difficult and important when the rider acts with one or two reins, tension of the muscles of the lumbosacral region or shenkels.
Therefore, reins can be learned only on a horse, which simultaneously responds to all influences.
a) Bidirectional effects of reins, i.e., simultaneous release, recruitment or holding, are learned at the beginning of movement, moving to a lynx and stops.The most difficult thing is to put the horse back, and the worst mistake is pulling the reins.
b) The one-sided action of the reins, that is, the different effects of the right and left reason (one is typed, the other is inactive, or one is inactive, and the other is typed), you can best learn by turning the horse in place on the front and rear limbs. These lessons, and first of all turning on the hind legs, when teaching a rider how to ride, are crucial not because he learns how to turn the horse on his hind legs, but because his skill is improved, it turns out in what sequence the various actions are carried out on the horse and how this relationship is achieved.
One-sided reins are required when riding with taking, at any turn and at a gallop. If a novice rider wants to learn how to steer a horse correctly, then he must first understand the consequences of his actions.
Exposure to the reins depends on the type of bridle and the parsing of the reins.
Reasoning 2: 2 is the easiest way to learn. The reins in this case must be disassembled so that the rider can act first with a snapper and only secondarily with a mouthpiece. Such an analysis has the advantage that when rearranging the horse (see “Turns on the Move”), the rider does not need to disassemble the reins again so that the external occasion of the mouthpiece does not get confused.
This principle of reins parsing is also advisable in dressage and contests, when the rider, without losing the reins, can let them go.
Analysis of the reins according to the 3: 1 principle requires the rider to have better horse-riding skills and, of course, a significantly longer period of training and training. And since the rider is holding his left hand in front of him at chest level, while the right hand is brought out, the rider’s landing will be asymmetrical. If you hold your hands symmetrically in front of the chest, then the mouthpiece will be crooked. And this leads to countless errors.
The analysis of the reins according to the 3: 1 principle makes it possible to more finely act on the reins, since the rider in this case adjusts to act on the reins mainly with his left hand. The left hand, as a rule, is weaker than the right, and control with only the left hand is with less use of force, and therefore requires more sensitivity. The transition to one-handed operation is not difficult either. Phillies reins are even more advantageous because the actions of the snaffle and mouthpiece are even more varied.
Anyone who is used to analyzing reins according to the 3: 1 principle will have difficulty trying to master the Phyllis method, since the movements of the hands should be completely different and correspond to a different position of the snaffle and mouthpiece. The slightest turn of the brush leads to a strong impact of the mouthpiece. If the rider is accustomed to one of the above principles of the analysis of reins, then the transition to the Phyllis method will lead to the fact that his hands will influence the occasion too much. At dressage competitions, reins are currently dismantled mainly on a 2: 2 basis.
Beginning riders should first of all be taught how to manage a trenzelny occasion and only after acquiring a certain skill should we move on to managing the mouthpiece:
a) it’s easier to manage the snaffle occasion, because this analysis of the reins is easier, and therefore more understandable,
b) the use of a mouthpiece reason has the advantage that horses in most cases are more obedient (as if they are tied), go smoother and therefore throw less.
When analyzing the reins, the main difficulty is that the efforts of the rider’s hands should be minimal so that the horse can perceive other influences - muscles of the lumbosacral, schenkels or body. Because, as already mentioned, far from the main role is assigned to the rider’s hands in comprehending the art of riding.
The mouthpiece can hurt a horse because it acts as a lever. Therefore, when dressing young horses, it is advisable to use a simple snaffle to correct stupid horses and teach them the right messages. And if the horse is accustomed to the mouthpiece, you can turn off the mouthpiece reins by releasing them. They resort to this if the horse is frightened, refuses to jump, standing on its hind legs. The horse is better subject to the snaffle and treats it with great confidence, because it acts softer. But still, to improve the dressage of horses, a mouthpiece is needed.
The rider must work out the analysis of the reins, as well as the actions with the shankels, so that when riding a horse he does not have to think about what should be done automatically.
The movements of the hands at the moment of impact on the horse with reins are barely perceptible, but they are the subject of excessive attention and conversations of all riders, and every message follows first of all from the correct landing. The movements of the reins should not be strong, but exactly match the impact that the rider wants to have. Learning this is not difficult, you just need to constantly train. Wrongly fulfilling the promise of a turn and using exclusively the reins, the horseman, so to speak, is likened to a coachman, these actions are so erroneous that we do not consider them, emphasizing their absurdity.
Learning to act on the reins while sitting on the layout is pointless and even erroneous, because in this case the novice rider learns the effects with his hands, not associating them with the effects of the shenkels and lumbosacral muscles. Even if the rider is thus told that this relationship must be maintained, he is first of all artificially accustomed to what he should not do. Practical riding is always more reliable consolidates the skill than verbal advice.

Riding textbook

How to learn to get into the rhythm of horse movement

All difficulties come only with the transition to a lynx, when the horse begins to toss the rider. Some horses throw more, others less. The slower the movement, the easier the rider will cope with this toss. If he has to ride fast, and even on a shaking horse, then he, of course, experiences great inconvenience.

The novice rider, trying to avoid the tossing, involuntarily squeezes the sides of the horse with the pendants, but this does not achieve what he wants. As a result, the inexperienced rider develops scuffs, stiffness of movements and a feeling of insecurity.

The reason for the lag of the rider from the rhythm of the horse’s movement was discussed in the chapter “Equilibrium”. All this can be dealt with by learning to control the muscles of the lumbosacral region. Of course, a person usually makes natural movements without hesitation, but since the ability to control the lumbosacral part of the muscles plays a special role in the art of riding, this issue should be specifically addressed in order to emphasize its importance. But even if the rider learns to correctly execute movements with these muscles, this does not mean that he will be able to skillfully influence the horse from the very first steps.

As a swing can be rocked, changing the tension of the lumbosacral, so the horse can thereby be encouraged to move forward. If it is already in motion, then you can try to adapt to this, enter the rhythm of movement, accompany it with your body. If the rider already knows how to move the horse correctly, then it means that he can accompany its movements, if he does not know one of the two, then it is clear that such a rider does not know how to do either.

To read

Riding in the field gives the rider the opportunity to better learn the features of the horse’s behavior, and this, in turn, adds confidence to the rider, he sits in the saddle more freely, almost at ease.This process can be compared with studying a foreign language abroad, where it is much easier to learn than with the help of teaching aids and a grammar textbook. And after a person learns spoken language, it is easier for him to learn grammar.

It should be noted another extreme when teaching horseback riding: devoting too much time to gymnastic exercises on the horse, they forget about the general physical training of the rider. Ugly posture, bad habits and stiffness, which are the result of a lack of physique and poor physical fitness, of course, affect the rider's landing. But even in this case, it is necessary to distinguish between improper landing and landing due to congenital defects of the rider: curvature of the spine, poor mobility of individual parts of the body. That is, an experienced trainer should see the difference between physical disabilities and the bad habits inherent in a novice rider before he gets into the saddle. The trainer should discuss these defects with the athlete, and best of all not during riding lessons. If the rider’s mistakes are caused by fear of too high demands or due to too fast pace, then the coach and the athlete can find ways to address them. If the cause of the mistakes lies in the physical defects or habits of the novice rider, then the trainer should give advice to which the athlete, if he wants to learn how to sit beautifully in the saddle, should listen.

In contrast to gymnastic exercises, horse exercises are used to correct posture, eliminate stiffness and should be carried out purely individually, not according to the pattern, since physical characteristics dictate a specific set of physical exercises to each athlete.

The unpleasant sensations that appear most often at the beginning of classes include hip pain that occurs when the femoral muscles are stretched. If the novice rider experiences such pain, then later the position of the pendants may be wrong with him. Only those who feel comfortable and relaxed in the saddle can work out the correct fit. If landing in the saddle causes inconvenience and it is difficult for the rider to keep his lower legs adjacent to the sides of the horse, then, most likely, his muscles and ligaments of the inner sides of the thighs are not elastic enough. Such unpleasant sensations are encountered at the beginning of training two-thirds of the riders. The reason, as already mentioned, is the strong and inelastic muscles of the inner thigh, which is especially common in adults. In most cases, this phenomenon is given too little attention. If even after some time these pains stop by themselves, which is completely natural, then the position of the schenkels may still remain wrong, and the rider himself will not understand what is the reason. And neither effort of will, nor effort will be able to save the novice rider from the stiffness of muscles, if he feels inconvenience in the saddle and can hold the body correctly only by straining the muscles of the shankels.

In this case, the following exercises should be recommended: legs apart and a stand with legs apart. This helps to stretch the inner muscles of the thighs, make them more elastic. But these exercises must be repeated daily and repeatedly in the morning, afternoon and evening.

It should be noted, however, that only gymnastic exercises cannot work out the correct position of the schenkels, so the rider must ride a horse regularly. And while frequent stretching exercises are not successful, the rider must choose a horse with less chest circumference and preferably not shaking.

Other landing defects - stiffness in the hips and joints of the extremities, curvature of the spine or hips - should also be fought. The stiffness of the joints of the hands interferes with the rider, as well as the musician when playing the piano or violin.But it is important to remember that these errors cannot be eliminated in the short time that the rider sits in the saddle.

If the novice rider does not follow the advice of the trainer, then these shortcomings will affect his landing and control of the horse will be difficult. It is then that I draw attention to the fact that too little attention is often paid to this type of gymnastic exercise.

However, one must fear that, by correcting these defects, the rider will no longer feel free and relaxed in the saddle, what happens, and quite often, although many believe that this should not be feared. It seems as if the rider only needs to be told about his shortcomings, and he will correct them. In fact, sometimes such advice is more harmful than it seems at first glance. It is not so rare to correct landing defects in the end is nothing more than an attempt to squeeze the rider into the once developed standard, although more often a different, no less unpleasant landing defect appears - the rider's stiffness.

The position of the rider's body and its limbs depends on what effect they should have on the horse. Therefore, the rider’s landing is not evaluated on its own, but only in conjunction with the sending and the feeling of contact with the horse. It is in this relationship that one must try to correct the landing. The aforesaid cannot be interpreted as if it is easy to improve the landing, on the contrary, it is very difficult: when the rider learns to understand the horse and act on it correctly, then he will be able to develop a good landing.

Fig. 3. The horseman forgot about muscle relaxation, and it seems to him that he is sitting correctly, in fact, he has become like a dummy, unable to feel or act.

Each element (the beginning of movement from a place, the transition from step to trot, stop, turn, transition from step or trot to gallop) must be preceded by a collection of horses. In this case, the rider is obliged to straighten up and act on the horse with shankels. In this way, he improves his landing and at the same time feels whether he managed to assemble the horse and whether it complied with his requirements.

If the rider himself and his trainer begin each lesson in exactly this way and do everything in the order described above, then any correction of the landing is unnecessary.

The trainer - whether he monitors the execution of his preliminary command or the landing of the novice rider - does not always catch the change in the landing of the student. But for the rider, each team dictates its conditions for its implementation. This already says a lot.

On the other hand, any commands, such as “straighten up,” “sit straight,” “chest forward,” cause the rider to be constrained, since his attention is directed only to sitting straight. The rider must learn not only to sit upright, but to ride correctly.

How to learn to get into the rhythm of horse movement

All difficulties come only with the transition to a lynx, when the horse begins to toss the rider. Some horses throw more, others less. The slower the movement, the easier the rider will cope with this toss. If he has to ride fast, and even on a shaking horse, then he, of course, experiences great inconvenience.

The novice rider, trying to avoid the tossing, involuntarily squeezes the sides of the horse with the pendants, but this does not achieve what he wants. As a result, the inexperienced rider develops scuffs, stiffness of movements and a feeling of insecurity.

The reason for the lag of the rider from the rhythm of the horse’s movement was discussed in the chapter “Equilibrium”. All this can be dealt with by learning to control the muscles of the lumbosacral region. Of course, a person usually makes natural movements without hesitation, but since the ability to control the lumbosacral part of the muscles plays a special role in the art of riding, this issue should be specifically addressed in order to emphasize its importance.But even if the rider learns to correctly execute movements with these muscles, this does not mean that he will be able to skillfully influence the horse from the very first steps.

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