|Latin name:||Accipiter nisus|
|Additionally:||European species description|
Appearance and behavior. A small predator, a male about the size of a pigeon, a female - a little smaller than a crow. Males weigh 100–220 g with a body length of 28–34 cm and a wingspan of 55–65 cm, females — 180–340 g with a body length of 35–41 cm and a wingspan of 67–80 cm. Body build is light, tarsus is thin, fingers are long especially middle. The head is round, the beak is relatively small, the beak does not form a smooth transition to the forehead line. The look is not so piercing and "angry" as that of a goshawk.
Description. The adult male is slate-gray above and light below, with narrow chestnut-red or rusty transverse mottles forming a small "ripple". Chin and cheeks with longitudinal mottles, whip whitish, without mottles. The adult female is gray-brown on top and bright below with wider brown or gray transverse stripes on the chest and belly. A narrow white eyebrow is developed above the eye in birds of both sexes; when the plumage is raised (tousled), white bases of scapular feathers and white spots on the nape are sometimes visible.
The wings from above look monotonous, from below - cross-striped, on a gray tail from above and from below 4 evenly distributed dark transverse bandages are visible. In the young specimen, the dorsal side is brown, with dark spots and buffy edges of feathers, the ventral side is light with brown longitudinal strokes on the throat and chest, transverse mottles on the belly and swept on the sides, less regular and larger than that of the female. The rainbow is yellow (in the male - to orange, in the young bird - in a pale tone), wax from yellow (adults) to grayish (young), the beak is dark.
The female can be confused with the male goshawk in size and color, but a different shape of the head and beak, a narrow (and not wide) white eyebrow, and thin legs are clearly visible near. At the flying sparrowhawk, the neck is shorter, the tail is relatively longer, narrower at the base, with a straight-cut rather than a rounded apex, the wings look larger and wider in comparison with the size of the body, while hovering slightly forward forward relative to the body. Maneuverable flight, with alternating swings and glides, easier than that of a goshawk, the sparrow can soar and plan for a long time, revealing its tail with a fan.
Sparrowhawk differs from the European tuvik in eye color, the presence of an eyebrow, a two-tone cheek, thin long fingers and fingers, the female in the absence of a chin stroke, the male in larger ripples on the chest. Young individuals of these species are well distinguished by the nature of the speckles on the lower side of the body. A flying adult sparrowhawk, unlike a tuvik, has darker and duller wing tops and a tail evenly covered with transverse stripes, including the middle pair of tail feathers. Sparrowhawk at any age differs from small falcons in body proportions, elongated legs, wider wings with rounded peaks, light eyes.
Vote. Frequentkyu-kyu-kyu-kyu", Higher in the male and lower in the female, with anxiety at the nest melodic"Tyuv, Tyuv, Tyuv. ».
Distribution Status. Widely distributed in extratropical Eurasia from the northern taiga to the Mediterranean (including the mountains of North Africa), Iran, the Himalayas. From west to east, its range extends from the Canary Islands and Western Europe to Japan and Kamchatka. From northern Europe, Siberia, the Far East migrates to the south for the winter, some of the populations winter in the tropics and subtropics of Asia and northeast Africa. In most of the range, this is one of the most common predators.
Lifestyle. It inhabits the most diverse forest and marginal biotopes, prefers mosaic alternation of forest areas and edges in the forest and forest-steppe zones, river floodplains in the steppe zone. Willingly settles in agrolandscapes, does not avoid the outskirts of settlements, nests even in urban forest parks. In the mountains it is found up to an altitude of 5,000 meters above sea level. It flies far into the tundra, in open steppes and deserts it is found only on wanderings. Prey - almost exclusively small birds, rarely small rodents and insects, the female can get hazel grouse, crow. Usually hunts by attacking from an ambush, or hides a bird in an inconspicuous search flight low above the ground.
Pairs are tied to a permanent nesting site, appear on it in March or April, and each spring a new small nest is built, usually well covered in the crown of a tree near the trunk. In clutch there are 3–6 whitish eggs with rusty or brown spots. The female incubates for 32–35 days, starting from the second or third egg. Both downy dresses of chicks are white, with a beige tint. At first the male feeds the brood, then the female begins to hunt. The behavior of birds at the nest varies from cautious to very aggressive. Feeding chicks in the nest lasts about a month. They become sexually mature after 1-3 years of life.
Sparrowhawk, or Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus)
In the form there are 14 subspecies:
- Accipiter virgatus abdulali —
- Accipiter virgatus affinis - in the western Himalayas, southwestern China, Assam and northern Myanmar
- Accipiter virgatus besra - in southern India and in Ceylon
- Accipiter virgatus confusus - in the Philippines
- Accipiter virgatus fuscipectus —
- Accipiter virgatus nisoides - in the south of China, the Andaman Islands and in Malaya
- Accipiter virgatus quagga —
- Accipiter virgatus quinquefasciatus —
- Accipiter virgatus gularis - in the north of China, in Japan (Ryukyu Island) and in the southeast of Siberia
- Accipiter virgatus rufotibialis —
- Accipiter virgatus rhodogaster - on the islands of Sulawesi and Bangai
- Accipiter virgatus sulaensis - on the islands of Sula
- Accipiter virgatus vanbemmelli —
- Accipiter virgatus virgatus - on the islands of Sumatra, Java and Borneo
- ↑Boehme R. L., Flint V.E. The bilingual dictionary of animal names. Birds. Latin, Russian, English, German, French. / edited by Acad. V. E. Sokolova. - M.: Rus. lang., "RUSSO", 1994. - S. 39. - 2030 copies. - ISBN 5-200-00643-0
- ↑Accipiter virgatus: IUCN Red Book website information
- ↑ 1234567891011http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/publicat/ac_gul/Dem_gularis.pdf
- ↑ 123Craig robson New Holland Guide to the Birds of South-East Asia. - United Kingdom: New Holland Publishers, 2005 .-- S. 130. - 304 p.
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