Milk. Whole milk is rarely fed to birds; they often use yogurt, cottage cheese, skim milk, and liquid waste obtained by churning butter. Acidophilic milk, prepared in pure cultures, is very useful for young animals. It is highly nutritious and protects them from diarrhea. Compared to other dairy products, whey is low in protein, but it contains easily digestible minerals. Therefore, it should be given to chickens and females during the egg period.
Usually they give it instead of water. Dairy products must not be stored in galvanized containers.
Fish. For feeding birds, only non-commercial varieties of fish and small fish unsuitable for human consumption are used. Pre-boil it and grind. Fish meal is added to the diet of birds. It contains from 46 to 60% protein and up to 15 - 18% fat, almost all amino acids, many minerals, vitamins. It is given to chicks, starting from the day old, in an amount of 3 to 12% of the feed weight. In combination with meat and bone meal (in a 2: 1 ratio), it forms the basis of a complete protein in the diet. Since fat is quickly oxidized, fishmeal should be stored in the refrigerator and used only fresh. In this regard, it is better to use fat-free flour containing not more than 2 - 3% fat. It is added to the feed at the rate of one incomplete teaspoon per adult bird.
Meat and bone meal. It is made from the waste of meat processing enterprises. To ensure sterility, they are processed at very high temperatures, as a result of which the proteins, or rather their protein part, undergoes profound changes, which significantly reduces their feed value. However, recently a new cooking technology has been developed - with heating of raw materials not more than 100 ° C. The quality of the flour thus obtained is much higher. A good meat and bone meal contains 47 - 50% protein, not more than 9 - 11% fat and 25 - 23% ash elements. The high content of the latter cannot be considered as a disadvantage of this feed - it is its valuable mineral part (a source of calcium and phosphorus), which is formed as a result of processing not only meat parts of animal carcasses into flour, but also their bones. Meat and bone meal is included in the diet of poultry in an amount of 3 - 7%.
Meat flour. They produce it from the internal organs of animals, meat scraps, other waste, and also add a small amount (up to 10%) of bones. This flour differs from meat and bone meal with a higher protein content - at least 56 - 64%, and contains less ash - (mineral) parts - no more than 12 - 14%. The amount of fat can reach 18%, but in the best grades of flour it is not more than 12%. In the diet, it is introduced to the bird in the same amount as meat and bone meal.
Blood meal. It is prepared from blood with the addition of not more than 5% of bones. It should contain at least 80% protein, not more than 3% fat and 6% ash substances. In less quality flour (second grade), the fat content can reach 5%, ash residues - up to 10 and protein - 73 - 75%. The amino acid composition of the protein of blood flour is very complete. In the diet of poultry include 3 - 5% of this flour. If it is lumpy, and this happens very often, they grind it, otherwise the bird eats flour reluctantly.
Powdered milk. It is prepared at dairies from skim milk in vacuum chambers without evaporation - this ensures that all the valuable nutrients found in natural skimmed milk, including B vitamins, are stored in milk powder. The color of milk powder is slightly yellowish. It contains easily digestible birds, including young chickens, nutrients: 30 - 33% protein, 44 - 47% milk sugar, 7 - 8% ash elements, 0.5 - 1.5% fat, 5 - 7% water. This food is very valuable, but expensive, therefore, it is used mainly for feeding young chickens in the amount of 2 - 3% of the dry portion of the diet. However, sometimes it is given to adult birds (in the amount of 0.5 - 1.5%) to increase the usefulness of the protein part of the diet.
Animal feed for poultry
Animal feed is a valuable source of complete protein, and some of them - vitamins. These feeds contain a lot of minerals, some foods contain fats (complicates the storage, crushing and mixing of other components in the manufacture of combined feeds), are well absorbed by the bird. To compile complete formulations necessary for feeding poultry and (this is very important for pheasants), in addition to cereals, animal feed is also needed. They have the most valuable proteins, which contain essential amino acids. Some of them are difficult to purchase, they are rarely available for sale.
Protein is the most important part of the cells of the body, the need for proteins in birds increases during oviposition, it is necessary for the correct formation of eggs. The full value of proteins lies in the presence in their composition of various amino acids that are required for rapid growth and normal development. The bird can get some amino acids with feed, and some of them are synthesized by the body. If vital amino acids are missing or they are in the wrong ratio, the normal functioning of the body is disturbed and it becomes weaker, various diseases appear, young growth slows down, a thin shell forms on the eggs, fragility of plumage appears, and spermatogenesis worsens.
Animal protein feed
These are the most valuable proteins, since they contain not only complete protein, but also many minerals and various vitamins. Animal feed introduces a ration to optimize for ash elements and protein, in small but sufficient quantities. Many of them are added not only because of their cost, but also because they are used to correct the shortage of amino acids, vitamins and minerals.
Feed meal - A very valuable component of animal feed, it contains a lot of protein, which contains all the essential amino acids that are required for the rapid development of the body. Additionally, flour contains various B vitamins, and fat-soluble vitamins A, E and D, the most important mineral elements, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, zinc, cobalt, copper and iron, animal feed is absorbed by 92%. Feed flour is divided into bone, blood, meat, meat and bone depending on the quality of the final product and used in the manufacture of raw materials (waste from slaughtered animals in meat processing plants - non-food blood, some organs, trimmings, substandard parts of carcasses, fly, bones, mezra, food abomasum , helm).
- Meat and bone meal- in its composition, depending on the quality of the product (1, 2,3 grade) contains 30-50% protein, methionine 6-13 g / kg, lysine 19-23 g / kg, 13-20% fat. It is used as a component for optimizing plant diets of poultry, and young animals and laying hens are added to feed - up to 10% of the feed weight.
- Meat meal- they are made from waste when cutting meat, fibrin, fruit membranes, dead embryos, internal organs after cutting carcasses and blood clots, bones in this product can be up to 10% by weight of feed. Produced by prolonged cooking of raw materials in special boilers, drying to a certain moisture content, subsequent grinding and sieving. In its structure, it is a dry mass, easily crumbling mass without lumps, with a special smell. The composition may contain antioxidants and antioxidants (ionol). The product is perfectly digested, supplies the body with B vitamins.
- Blood meal- made from hat, fibrin, blood, during the production of the product they can add bone up to 5% of the total weight. Blood meal is one of the best sources of protein for poultry (protein content reaches 73-81%), contains 48-69 g / kg of lysine.
- Bone flour- made of bone remaining after cutting meat at meat processing enterprises. The bones contain a large amount of calcium and phosphorus salts, there is protein and fat. In different grades of bone meal can be up to 20-15% protein and 10-15% fat. It is used to optimize the ratio of calcium and phosphorus in feed mixtures for poultry (5-10%) by weight of feed.
Fish feed meal - produced from fish, crustaceans, marine mammals, and marine processing waste. The flour contains 36-48% protein, 10% fat, up to 13% calcium and 5% phosphorus, iodine, vitamins A, D and group B. The protein of this product contains all the essential essential amino acids (the same as in meat flour). The composition of this product contains salt up to 5%, for this reason, when using its compound feeds, it is necessary to slightly reduce the amount of salt in the diet.
Animal fat - produced during the disposal and processing of carcasses in meat processing plants. This is a mixture of lamb, pork and beef fat, resulting in a product from light yellow to almost brown. Feed fat is needed as an energy supplement (5-7%) in combination feeds for layers and broilers. In fat, the amount of moisture should not be more than 0.5%, the presence of impurities is not allowed. The feed value of 3.5 feed units per 1 kg, it contains essential fatty acids - arachidonic and linolenic, which cannot be formed in the body of a bird, but are very important for the normal functioning of the body.
Animal fats are used in compound feeds for poultry in amounts - for laying hens 5%, broilers 8%, turkey poults 5%, ducks 3%, ducklings 3%, turkeys 5%, goslings 5%.
Flour worms - larvae of the flour Khrushchak - a black beetle with wings with a brownish tinge. The worms themselves are light brown in color, with a cylindrical body, 2530 mm long. This insect should not be confused with its “cousin” - a small flour hrushchak, which is much smaller (the length of the insect does not exceed 5.5 mm) and an elongated body of black or chocolate color. These larvae are also well eaten by poultry, but they are not specially propagated; it crawls out of the containers and crawls into products where it is very difficult to get rid of it.
Larvae of flies - they can come in handy when raising chickens. Obtaining larvae of flies is quite simple, when creating suitable conditions, the required number of insects is grown for 5-6 days.
Bee larvae - you can get such food in the period May-July, during this period, the larvae are very useful for raising chickens of domestic hens, pheasants, and other birds. The bird gets used to this food very quickly, and they eat it with pleasure. In the hives, you can often find many ticks, they can also be used as feed for poultry. Mites and their larvae contain 15% fat, and a lot of vitamins A and D, you can easily save these insects in a refrigerator by placing them in a wide glass container.
Gamarus - crustacean (also called Mormysh), is found in Western Siberia and the Urals in open waters. It is prepared by zoo plants as feed, often in this area can be found in bird markets and pet stores. The bird is given it in ground form (powder), it is added to any soft feed.
Chafer - the insect is dried and well crushed, in this form give the bird. They are harvested in the last decade of April - the first decade of May, while the years that have come out after wintering of the beetles occur. In the morning and evening, they sit on the trees, it is very easy to squeeze them from the branches onto rags spread out near the tree. After collecting, the beetles are dried, crushed, and poured into glass tightly closed containers. Maybug is added to soft foods.
Shkvara - they are obtained during the exudation from any adipose tissue, from 1-1.3 feed units, protein 470-510 g, phosphorus 5.2 g, calcium 6.5 g are found in 1 kg of product. Often it is used in the manufacture of meat and bone meal.
Feather flour - produced from the intestines and feathers of the bird remaining during the cutting of carcasses, and in the processing of defective carcasses of birds or severed heads, wings, etc. In 1 kg of product there are 0.8 feed units, 500 g of protein-poor amino acids.
Bird eggs - they contain all the substances necessary for the life of the body. In the first days of life they give small chickens, before giving, they boil hard-boiled eggs for 10-15 minutes, then cool them in water and grind everything well. It is desirable to collect the shell left over from the used eggs, dry them well and grind them into powder, after which it can be used as mineral top dressing. Instead of eggs, you can buy egg powder in grocery stores; in its characteristics, it is not inferior to fresh eggs. Use it by adding it to any soft food or make casseroles, omelets or cereals with it.