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White-eyed Thorny Shark

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1 Centroscymnus coelolepis

2 Cirrhigaleus barbifer

3 Deania calcea

4 Deania profundorum

5 Etmopterus bullisi

6 Etmopterus hillianus

7 Etmopterus spinax

8 Etmopterus villosus

9 Etmopterus virens

10 Heteroscymno>

11 Scymnodalatias sherwoodi

12 Scymnodon obscurus

13 Scymmnodon ringens

14 Sccymnodon squamulosus

15 Squalus acanthias

16 Squalus asper

17 Squalus blainvillei

18 Squalus mitsukurii

19 Centroscymnus crep>

20 Centroscymnus cryptacanthus

See also in other dictionaries:

prickly shark - portugalinis baltaakis dygliaryklis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Centroscymnus coelolepis angl. Portuguese dogfish, Portuguese shark, white eyed shark rus. white-eyed shark, prickly shark, ... ... Žuvų pavadinimų žodynas

white-eyed shark - portugalinis baltaakis dygliaryklis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Centroscymnus coelolepis angl. Portuguese dogfish, Portuguese shark, white eyed shark rus. white-eyed shark, prickly shark, ... ... Žuvų pavadinimų žodynas

portuguese shark - portugalinis baltaakis dygliaryklis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Centroscymnus coelolepis angl. Portuguese dogfish, Portuguese shark, white eyed shark rus. white-eyed shark, prickly shark, ... ... Žuvų pavadinimų žodynas

Centroscymnus coelolepis - portugalinis baltaakis dygliaryklis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Centroscymnus coelolepis angl. Portuguese dogfish, Portuguese shark, white eyed shark rus. white-eyed shark, prickly shark, ... ... Žuvų pavadinimų žodynas

Portuguese dogfish - portugalinis baltaakis dygliaryklis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Centroscymnus coelolepis angl. Portuguese dogfish, Portuguese shark, white eyed shark rus. white-eyed shark, prickly shark, ... ... Žuvų pavadinimų žodynas

Portuguese shark - portugalinis baltaakis dygliaryklis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Centroscymnus coelolepis angl. Portuguese dogfish, Portuguese shark, white eyed shark rus. white-eyed shark, prickly shark, ... ... Žuvų pavadinimų žodynas

portugalinis baltaakis dygliaryklis - statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Centroscymnus coelolepis angl. Portuguese dogfish, Portuguese shark, white eyed shark rus. white-eyed shark, barbed shark, Portuguese shark ryšiai: platesnis ... ... Žuvų pavadinimų žodynas

white-eyed shark - portugalinis baltaakis dygliaryklis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Centroscymnus coelolepis angl. Portuguese dogfish, Portuguese shark, white eyed shark rus. white-eyed shark, prickly shark, ... ... Žuvų pavadinimų žodynas

Content

White-eyed sharks are active predators capable of catching large and quick prey. Their diet consists mainly of cephalopods and fish. They have sharp vision, adapted to detect bioluminescence, because sunlight does not reach the depths where they live. Propagate by egg production, embryos feed on yolk and, possibly, uterine fluid. In litter up to 29 newborns, pregnancy lasts over a year. This species is appreciated due to its fat-rich liver. White-eyed sharks are an important fishing target off the coast of Portugal, Great Britain, Japan and Australia. Do not pose a danger to humans.

Taxonomy

The first scientific description of the white-eyed prickly sharks was given by the Portuguese zoologists José Vicente Barbosa do Bocage and Felish Antoniu di Brito Capella in 1864. Holotype burned out during a fire at the National Zoological Museum ru en in Lisbon. Scientists attributed the species to a new genus of white-eyed sharks. The specific name comes from other Greek. κοῖλος - “hollow, empty” - and λεπίς - “scales”.

Area

White-eyed prickly sharks are very widespread, but uneven. There are several isolated populations in the Atlantic. They live from the Great Newfoundland Bank to Delaware (USA). In the eastern Atlantic, they come from Iceland to Sierra Leone, including the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, the environs of the Azores and Madeira, as well as from the southern part of Namibia to the western coast of South Africa. In the Indian Ocean, they are found off the coast of Seychelles. In the Pacific Ocean, they are present in the waters washing Japan, New Zealand and Australia from Cape Hawk ru en (New South Wales) to Beachport ru en (South Australia), including Tasmania. White-eyed spiky sharks live at the greatest depths among all the sharks that live today. They are found at a depth of 150 to 3675 m, starting from the lower part of the continental slope and ending with the abyssal plain, most often they are observed between 400 and 2000 m. In the Mediterranean Sea, they rarely occur at a depth of less than 1,500 m, usually between 2,500 and 3,000 m. Water at such a depth has a fairly constant temperature of 13 ° C and a salinity of 38.4 ‰. Adult white-eyed prickly sharks lead a bottom lifestyle, while young individuals are found at a considerable distance from the bottom. This species has deep segregation by sex and size, pregnant females fall above 1200-1500 m, and young sharks prefer to stay at a greater depth.

Description

On average, males and females of white-eyed sharks reach a length of 90 and 100 cm, respectively. The maximum registered size is 120 cm. Individuals of the species that live in the Mediterranean Sea are smaller, their size is not more than 65 cm. White-eyed prickly sharks have a short and rounded snout, the length of the snout does not exceed the width of the mouth. The nostrils are framed by short skin folds. Large oval eyes are equipped with a special layer of the choroid, which reflects yellow-green light. The mouth is wide and slightly curved in the form of an arch, the lips are smooth, there are grooves in the corners of the mouth. Upper teeth from 43 to 68, they are narrow, set upright. The lower ones are 29–41, they are short, with an angularly curved end, the ends of the teeth are interlinked, forming a single “blade”. There are five pairs of short gill slits.

The white-eyed prickly sharks have a thick cylindrical body, the belly is flat. The dorsal fins are small in size, the same in shape, each with a tiny corrugated spike at the base. The base of the first dorsal fin is located behind the pectoral fins, and the base of the second dorsal fin is above the ventral fins. The pectoral fins are medium sized, rounded. Anal fin missing. The lower lobe of the caudal fin is short, but well developed, at the edge of the upper lobe there is a ventral notch. The skin is covered with large placoid scales, changing shape with age. The skin of young sharks is covered with heart-shaped scales loosely adjacent to each other with an incomplete central ridge and three caudal teeth; the tip of the scales is pointed. In adults, the scales are almost round, smooth, with a central notch, superimposed on each other like scales of bony fish. Young white-eyed sharks are evenly colored in blue-black, adults are brown-black. In the northeast Atlantic in 1997, a partially albino specimen of this species was caught: the body was painted pale, but the eyes had a normal color. This was the first instance of a deep-sea albino shark.

Biology

Inhabited almost exclusively in the aphotic zone (the zone where the sun's rays do not penetrate), white-eyed prickly sharks are quite widespread and numerous in deep waters. The large squalene-rich liver of these fish allows them to maintain neutral buoyancy and freeze in the water column with minimal effort. There is more squalene in the liver of males than in the liver of females. Studies have shown that the average speed of movement of white-eyed prickly sharks is 0.072 m / s and that they do not stay long in the same place. On white-eyed prickly sharks, monogenes of the genus parasitize Erpocotyle tapeworms Sphyriocephalus vir>, S. richardi and Anthobothrium sp.

White-eyed prickly sharks prey mainly on cephalopods (e.g. Mastigoteuthis ru en) and on bony fishes (smooth-headed, luminous anchovies, Atlantic large-headed, macrourids). It is also known that they can hunt other sharks and invertebrates, for example, jellyfish Atolla wyvillei ru en, can also eat the remains of dead whales. These sharks have sharper eyesight than other deep-sea sharks. They have large lenses and pupils, there is a tapetum lucidum, in their eyes there is a high concentration of ganglion cells concentrated in a horizontal strip passing through the center of the eyes, these cells enhance the perception of moving objects in a horizontal plane. Obviously, the visual apparatus of white-eyed prickly sharks is capable of detecting bioluminescence, the maximum absorption of electromagnetic radiation from their light-collecting pigment ru en corresponds to the wavelength of light emitted by their victims, such as squids Histioteuthis ru en, Heteroteuthis dispar ru en, Lycoteuthis lorigera ru en and Taningia danae ru en .

In the Mediterranean Sea, white-eyed sharks are one of the most common sharks, along with the Spanish shark-tailed shark and night shark, here it is the only frequent shark at depths of more than 1,500 m. In view of the habitat at a depth greater than these two species, there is no competition with them. The small size of the Mediterranean population is probably due to the poor food supply and / or warmer and salty water. The diet of these sharks is 87% composed of cephalopods. Bony fish are a secondary food source; young sharks prefer shrimp Acanthephyra eximia - the most common within the range of sharks of decapod crustaceans. Unlike sharks of other populations, Mediterranean white-eyed spiky sharks do not eat carrion.

These sharks breed by egg-production, the embryos feed on the yolk and, possibly, the uterine fluid produced by the mother's body. One study noted that off the coast of Portugal, the breeding season occurs twice a year: from January to May and from August to December, and only part of the population shows reproductive activity. However, according to other sources, females at different stages of pregnancy come across all year round. Ovarian follicles need time to mature, reaching a diameter of 5-6 mm, they ovulate into the uterus. No sperm was found in the studied females in the genital tract, this suggests that fertilization in sharks occurs immediately after mating, which in turn can trigger the ovulation process. The Atlantic and Pacific populations of white-eyed spiny sharks have a similar reproductive cycle. Sharks that live off the coast of Japan generally produce more small oocytes ru en , and the sharks inhabiting the waters of Great Britain have more droppings (with small oocytes) and larger than their Portuguese counterparts. There is evidence of the capture of an hermaphrodite specimen, which had an ovary on the right and a testis on the left. At an early stage of development, the sex of the embryos is indistinguishable, pigmentation is absent, they have fibrous external gills, the yolk sac weighs 120-130 g. Reproductive organs develop when the embryo reaches a length of 92 mm, and cell differentiation is completed at a length of 150 mm. In embryos growing to 100-150 mm, pigmentation appears, at about the same time, the external gills regress. With a length of 140 mm, the inner yolk sac develops, in which the yolk begins to stock up. By the time the embryos reach a size of 233-300 mm, the outer yolk sac is completely empty. Off the coast of Portugal, newborns are born in May and December. Pregnancy lasts over a year. After giving birth, females have follicular atresia, which suggests that there is a rest period between pregnancies. The number of litter varies from 1 to 29 and depends on the size of the female. The average litter of 12 newborns. Perhaps the birth takes place in yet unknown natural nurseries, as newborns are extremely rare. In the Atlantic, their length is 23-30 cm, and in the Pacific Ocean 30-35 cm.

With the exception of individuals of the Mediterranean population, males and females of this species reach puberty with a length of 90-101 and 85-115 cm, respectively (the coast of the Iberian Peninsula), 86 and 102 cm (west of the coast of Great Britain), 70 and 95-100 cm ( Suruga Bay) and 82–90 and 99–110 cm in southeast Australia. In the Mediterranean Sea, white-eyed prickly sharks become sexually mature already with a length of 53 cm.

Human interaction

Spiky white-eyed sharks are too small and live too deep to be dangerous to humans. These sharks have long been caught on the hook, using gillnets and trawls. They are especially valued for a liver containing up to 22–49% squalene. The meat goes on sale in fresh or dried form, after which it is eaten or used to produce fishmeal. Until recently, these sharks were the objects of European commercial fishing only in Portugal. As by-catch during the fishing for saber fish ru en From 1986 to 1999, from 300 to 900 tons of white-eyed spiny sharks were caught annually. Around 1990, French bottom trawlers began fishing for these and gray short-nosed sharks west of the British Isles for liver and meat. Norwegian, Irish and Scottish fishermen joined them, so white-eyed spiky sharks became an important component of deep-sea fishing in the northwest Atlantic. While the population of Portugal has remained stable off the coast of Portugal, the population of British waters has declined significantly in recent years. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has assigned this species a conservation status of “Close to Vulnerability”.

Notes

  1. www.fishbase.org/Nomenclature/SynonymsList.php? > (English) (Retrieved February 2, 2016)
  2. 12Reshetnikov Yu.S., Kotlyar A.N., Russ T.S., Shatunovsky M.I. The bilingual dictionary of animal names. Fish. Latin, Russian, English, German, French. / edited by Acad. V. E. Sokolova. - M.: Rus. Yaz., 1989 .-- S. 35 .-- 12,500 copies. - ISBN 5-200-00237-0.
  3. Lindberg, G.W., Gerd, A.S., Russ, T.S. Dictionary of names of marine commercial fish of the world fauna. - Leningrad: Nauka, 1980 .-- S. 45. - 562 p.
  4. 123 www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Centroscymnus&speciesname=coelolepis Centroscymnus coelolepis in the FishBase database
  5. 12345678 www.iucnredlist.org/details/41747/0 Centroscymnus coelolepis: IUCN Red Book website information
  6. Bocage, J.V.B. du & De Brito Capello, F. Sur quelques espèces inédites de Squalidae de la tribu Acanthiana Gray, qui fréquentent les côtes du Portugal // Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. - 1864. - Vol. 1864. - P. 260—263.
  7. 12345Compagno, Leonard J.V. www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad122e/ad122e00.htm 1. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes // FAO species catalog. - Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 1984. - Vol. 4. Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalog of Shark Species Known to Date. - P. 55. - ISBN 92-5-101384-5.
  8. slovarus.info/grk.php The large ancient Greek dictionary. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
  9. 123Tosti, L., R. Danovaro, A. Dell'anno, I. Olivotto, S. Bompadre, S. Clo and O. Carnevali Vitellogenesis in the deep-sea shark Centroscymnus coelolepis // Chemistry and Ecology. - 2006. - Vol. 22, No. 4. - P. 335-345. - DOI: 10.1080 / 02757540600812016.
  10. 123456789Veríssimo, A., L. Gordo and I. Figueiredo icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/60/6/1335.full.pdf+html Reproductive biology and embryonic development of Centroscymnus coelolepis in Portuguese mainland waters // ICES Journal of Marine Science. - (2003). - Vol. 60, No. 6. - P. 1335-1341. - DOI: 10.1016 / S1054-3139 (03) 00146-2.
  11. Baranes, A. Sharks from the Amirantes Islands, Seychelles, with a description of two new species of squalo> No. 1. - P. 33-65. - DOI: 10.1560 / N4KU-AV5L-0VFE-83DL.
  12. 1234Sion, L., A. Bozzano, G. D'Onghia, F. Capezzuto and M. Panza Chondrichthyes species in deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea // Scientia Marina. - (December 2004). - Vol. 68, No. (Supplement 3). - P. 152-162.
  13. 12Carrasson, M., C. Stefanescu and J.E. Cartes Diets and bathymetric distributions of two bathyal sharks of the Catalan deep sea (western Mediterranean) // Marine Ecology Progress Series. - 1992. - Vol. 82, No. 1. - P. 21-30. - DOI: 10.3354 / meps082021.
  14. 12Clarke, M.W., L. Borges and R.A. Officer Comparisons of trawl and longline catches of deepwater elasmobranchs west and north of Ireland // Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science. - (April 2005). - Vol. 35. - P. 429-442.
  15. 123Clarke, M.W., P.L. Connolly and J.J. Bracken Aspects of reproduction of the deep water sharks Centroscymnus coelolepis and Centrophorus squamosus from west of Ireland and Scotland // Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. - (2001). - Vol. 81, No. 6. - P. 1019-1029. - DOI: 10.1017 / S0025315401005008.
  16. 1234Burgess, G. and Bester, C. www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/PortugueseShark/PortugueseShark.html Biological Profiles: Portuguese Shark. Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
  17. 123Bozzano, A. "Retinal specializations in the dogfish Centroscymnus coelolepis from the Mediterranean deep-sea ”// Scientia Marina. - 2004. - Vol. 68, No. (Supplement 3). - P. 185-195.
  18. "Portuguese shark, Centroscymnus coelolepis, from Japan, with notes on C. owstoni"// Japanese Journal of Ichthyology. - 1983. - Vol. 30, No. (3). - P. 208-216.
  19. Taniuchi, T. and J. A. F. Garrick "A new species of Scymmnodalatias from the southern oceans, and comments on other squaliform sharks ”// Japanese Journal of Ichthyology. - 1986. - Vol. 33, No. (2). - P. 119-134.
  20. Deynat, P.P. "Partial albinism in the Portuguese dogfish Centroscymnus coelolepis (Elasmobranchii, Somnios> No. (3). - P. 233–236.
  21. Hernandez-Perez, M., R.M. Rabanal Gallego and M.J. Gonzalez carlos Sex difference in liver-oil concentration in the deep-sea shark, Centroscymnus coelolepis // Marine and Freshwater Research 53. - 2002. - Vol. 53, No. 5. - P. 883-886. - DOI: 10.1071 / MF01035.
  22. Bagley, P.M., A. Smith and I.G. Priede Tracking movements of deep demersal fishes in the Porcupine Seabight, north-east Atlantic Ocean // Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. - (August 1994). - Vol. 74, No. 3. - DOI: 10.1017 / S0025315400047603.
  23. Pascoe, P.L. Monogenean parasites of deep-sea fishes from the Rockall Trough (N.E. Atlantic) including a new species // Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. - 1987. - Vol. 67, No. 3. - P. 603-622. - DOI: 10.1017 / S0025315400027326.
  24. Bussieras, J. Nouvelles observations sur les cestodes tetrarhynques de la collection du Musee Oceanographique de Monaco. I. Sphryiocephalus alberti Guiart, 1935 // Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee. - 1970. - Vol. 45. - P. 5-12.
  25. Guitart, J. Cestodes parasites provenant des campagnes scientifiquesde S.A.S. le Prince Albert ler de Monaco (1886-1913) // Résultats des Campagnes Scientifiques accomplies sur son Yacht par Albert Ier Prince Souverain de Monaco publiés sous sa Direction avec le Concours de M. Jules Richard. - 1935. - Vol. 91. - P. 1-100.
  26. Mauchline, J. and J.D.M. Gordon Diets of the sharks and chimaero> No. 2-3. - P. 269—278. - DOI: 10.1007 / BF00406012.
  27. 12Figueiredo, I., T. Moura, A. Neves and L.S. Gordo Reproductive strategy of leafscale gulper shark Centrophorus squamosus and the Portuguese dogfish Centroscymnus coelolepis on the Portuguese continental slope // Journal of Fish Biology. - (July 2008). - Vol. 73, No. 1. - P. 206-225. - DOI: 10.1111 / j.1095-8649.2008.01927.x.
  28. 12Bañón, R., C. Piñeiro and M. Casas Biological aspects of deep-water sharks Centroscymnus coelolepis and Centrophorus squamosus in Galician waters (north-western Spain) // Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. - 2006. - Vol. 86, No. 4. - P. 843-846. - DOI: 10.1017 / S0025315406013774.
  29. 12Yano, K. and S. Tanaka Size at maturity, reproductive cycle, fecundity and depth segregation of the deep sea squalo> No. 2. - P. 167-174. - DOI: 10.2331 / suisan. 54.167.
  30. 12Daley, R., J. Stevens and K. Graham. (2002). Catch analysis and productivity of the deepwater dogfish resource in southern Australia. FRDC Final Report, 1998/108. Canberra: Fisheries Research and Development Corporation
  31. Girard, M. and M.H. Du buit Reproductive biology of two deep-water sharks from the British Isles, Centroscymnus coelolepis and Centrophorus squamosus (Chondrichthyes: Squal> No. 5. - P. 923-831. - DOI: 10.1017 / S002531549800109X.
  32. Cló, S., M. Dalú, R. Danovaro and M. Vacchi (2002). Segregation of the Mediterranean population of Centroscymnus coelolepis (Chondrichthyes: Squalidae): a description and survey. NAFO SCR Doc. 02/83

Literature

  • Compagno, Leonard J.V. www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad122e/ad122e00.htm 1. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes // FAO species catalog. - Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 1984. - Vol. 4. Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalog of Shark Species Known to Date. - P. 55. - ISBN 92-5-101384-5.
  • Sion, L., A. Bozzano, G. D'Onghia, F. Capezzuto and M. Panza Chondrichthyes species in deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea // Scientia Marina. - (December 2004). - Vol. 68, No. (Supplement 3). - P. 152-162.
  • Tosti, L., R. Danovaro, A. Dell'anno, I. Olivotto, S. Bompadre, S. Clo and O. Carnevali Vitellogenesis in the deep-sea shark Centroscymnus coelolepis // Chemistry and Ecology. - 2006. - Vol. 22, No. 4. - P. 335-345. - DOI: 10.1080 / 02757540600812016.
This article is one of the good articles on the Russian-language Wikipedia section.

Португальская акула-катран (белоглазая акула) — Centroscymnus coelolepis (Bocage, Capello, 1864), рис. 40

Spread. Эта акула многочисленна в водах о-ва Мадейра, Португалии, а также Новой Англии (США). В вос­точной части Атлантического океана она распространена от Исландии до Сенегала, есть в западной части Средиземного моря.

Coloring. Тело у этой акулы темное, орехово-коричневое, несколько темнее на рыле и концах плавников.

Biology. Длина тела достигает 1,2 м, обычно в уловах до 90. 95 см. Обитает на глубине 330. 2700 м, обычно предпочитает глубину 400.-.2000 м. Это яйцеживородящая акула, вынашивает 13. 16 зародышей. Питается мелкими кальмарами и рыбами.

Промысел. Ловят ее донными тралами, крючковой снастью и ловушками. Используют в вяленом виде и для производства

Черная колючая акула — Etmoptenis spinax (Linne, 1758)

Spread.It lives in the waters of the eastern Atlantic Ocean, from Norway and Iceland to the Mediterranean Sea.

Coloring. The back and sides of this shark are blackish-brown, the ventral side is black or bluish-brown. Along the sides of the body there is a silver stripe.

Biology. This is a small shark, up to 47 cm long, usually individuals with a length of 30. 40 cm are found in catches. It lives at a depth of 800. 1000 m. It feeds mainly on bathypelagic crustacean cephalopods and small fish.

This is a viviparous fish, which bears 10. 12 embryos, the length of sharks at birth 10. 12 cm.

Pig Shark (Centrina) - Oxynotus centrlna

(Linne, 1758), Fig. 41

Spread. It lives in the waters of the eastern Atlantic Ocean, from Great Britain to South Africa.

Coloring. The body of the centrina is gray or gray-brown. There are dark areas on the head and sides of the body. A light horizontal line highlights dark areas on the head, stripes also pass below the eyes.

Biology. The body length of the centrina reaches 1.5 m, it becomes sexually mature at a length of 0.5 m. This unusual species of near-bottom shark lives at a depth of 40. 500 m, feeds on small fish and invertebrates.

Fishing. There is no specialized fishing for centrines. It is caught in trawls only in by-catch when fishing for other species. It is used in dried and smoked form, as well as for the production of flour and fat.

FAMILY RIGHT SHARKS - DALATIIDAE

These are both small and large sharks, close to katranovye. Gill slits five pairs. There are two dorsal fins, no anal fin. The body is fusiform, the eyes are located on the sides of the head (in contrast to the flat-bodied sharks). In front of the dorsal fins, there is no prickly spike. Teeth with one apex, on the upper jaw they are narrow and conical, and on the lower - wide and flat. A number of authors (Compagno, 1984, Toniuchi, Garrick, 1985) believe that the species of this family should belong to the family of spiny sharks. It includes seven genera with 12 species distributed in all oceans from the Arctic and Antarctic to the tropics.

Below is a description of a species common in the northern waters of the Atlantic Ocean - the Atlantic polar shark. Closely related species of this family live in the northern waters of the Pacific Ocean and in the Antarctic.

Excerpt from the White-eyed Thorny Shark

My head was spinning. As a thirsty person, satisfying my eternal hunger for knowledge, I eagerly absorbed the flow of amazing information generously presented by the North. And I wanted a lot more. I wanted to know everything to the end. It was a breath of fresh water in the scorched woes and troubles of the desert! And I just could not get enough to drink.
“I have thousands of questions!” But there is no time left. What should I do, North.
- Ask, Isidora. Ask, I will try to answer you.
“Tell me, North, why does it seem to me that in this story two life stories, intertwined with similar events, seem to be connected, and they are presented as the life of one person?” Or am I wrong?
“You're absolutely right, Isidora.” As I told you earlier, the "mighty of this world" who created the false history of mankind "put" on the true life of Christ the alien life of the Jewish prophet Joshua, who lived one and a half thousand years ago (since the story of the North). And not only himself, but also his family, his family and friends, his friends and followers. Indeed, it was precisely the wife of the prophet Joshua, the Jewess Mary, who had a sister Marta and brother Lazarus, a sister to his mother, Maria Jacobe, and others who had never been near Radomir and Magdalen. Just as there were no stranger "apostles" next to them - Paul, Matthew, Peter, Luke and the rest.
It was the family of the prophet Joshua who moved one and a half thousand years ago to Provence (which at that time was called Gaul (Transalpine Gaul), in the Greek city of Massalia (present-day Marseille), since Massalia at that time was the “gateway” between Europe and Asia, and this was the easiest way for all those “persecuted” to avoid persecution and adversity.
The real Magdalene moved to Languedoc a thousand years after the birth of the Jew Mary, and she went exactly Home, and did not run away from the Jews to other Jews, as the Jew Mary did, who was never the bright and pure Star that the real Magdalen was . Judea Maria was a kind but narrow-minded woman who was married very early. And she was never called Magdalene. This name was “hung” on her, wanting to combine these two incompatible women into one. And to prove such an absurd legend, they came up with a fake story about the city of Magdala, which during the life of the Jew Mary in Galilee did not exist. All this outrageous “story” of the two Jesuses was intentionally mixed and mixed up so that it was too difficult for a simple person to get to the truth. And only those who really knew how to think, saw what a complete lie Christianity was carrying - the most cruel and most bloodthirsty of all religions. But, as I told you earlier, for the most part people do not like to THINK themselves. Therefore, they accepted and accept on faith everything that the Roman Church teaches. It was so comfortable, and it always has been. Man was not ready to accept the real TEACHING of Radomir and Magdalen, which required labor and independent thinking. But on the other hand, people always liked and approved of what was extremely simple - what told them what to believe in, what can be accepted, and what should be denied.

For a minute I felt very scared - the words of the North were too reminiscent of Karaffa's sayings. But in my “rebellious” soul, I did not want to agree that the bloodthirsty killer - Papa - could be at least somewhat truly right.
- This slavish “faith” was needed by the same Thinking Dark in order to strengthen its dominance in our fragile, still only emerging world. to never let him be born again. - calmly continued the North. “It is precisely in order to successfully enslave our Earth that the Thinking Dark found this small, but very flexible and conceited, Jewish people understood by them alone. Due to its “flexibility” and mobility, this people easily succumbed to the influence of others and became a dangerous tool in the hands of the Thinking Darks, who found the prophet Joshua who lived there once, and cunningly “intertwined” his life story with the life story of Radomir, destroying the real ones biographies and putting false, so that naive human minds believed in such a "story". But even the same Jewish Joshua, also had nothing to do with a religion called Christianity. It was created on the orders of Emperor Constantine, who needed a new religion in order to throw a new “bone” out of control of the people. And the people, without even thinking, gladly swallowed it. Such is still our Earth, Isidora. And very soon someone will be able to change it. Very soon people will want to THINK, unfortunately.
“Let them not be ready yet, North.” But you see, people very easily open to the "new"! So does this not show exactly that humanity (in its own way) LOOKS for the path to the present, that people strive for TRUTH, which there is simply no one to show them.
- You can show the most valuable Knowledge Book in the world a thousand times, but it will not work if a person cannot read. Is not it, Isidora.
“But you TEACH your students.” I exclaimed longingly. “They didn’t know everything at once, either, before they came to you!” So teach humanity. It is worth it not to disappear.
- Yes, Isidora, we teach our students. But the gifted ones who come to us know the main thing - they know how to THINK. And the rest are just “followers”. And we have neither time nor desire for them until their time comes, and they are not worthy of any of us to teach them.
The North was absolutely sure that he was right, and I knew that no arguments could convince him. Therefore, I decided not to insist anymore.
“Tell me, North, what is real in the life of Jesus?” Can you tell me how he lived? And how could it happen that with such a powerful and faithful support he still lost. What happened to his children and Magdalene? How long after his death did she manage to live?
He smiled with his wonderful smile.
“You reminded me now of young Magdalene.” She was the most curious of all and endlessly asked questions to which even our magi did not always find answers.
The North again “disappeared” into its sad memory, meeting there again with those for whom it was still so deeply and sincerely yearning.
“She was truly an amazing woman, Isidora!” Never giving up and not pitying herself, just like you. She was ready at any moment to give herself up for those whom she loved. For those whom I considered worthy. Yes, and just for LIFE. Fate did not spare her, bringing down the brunt of irreparable losses on her fragile shoulders, but until her last moment she fought fiercely for her friends, for her children, and for all who remained on the earth after the death of Radomir. People called her the Apostle of all Apostles. And she truly was him. Only not in the sense in which it is shown in its "scriptures", a Hebrew language that is essentially foreign to it. Magdalene was the strongest Vedunya. Golden Mary, as people called her, at least once having met her. She carried the pure light of Love and Knowledge, and was completely saturated with it, giving everything without a trace and not sparing herself. Her friends loved her very much and, without hesitation, were ready to give their lives for her. For her and for the doctrine that she continued to carry after the death of her beloved husband, Jesus Radomir.
“Forgive my meager awareness, North, but why do you always call Christ Radomir.”
- Everything is very simple, Isidore, Radomir was once named him by his father and mother, and it was his real, Generic name, which really reflected his true essence. This name had a double meaning - the Joy of the world (Rado - the world) and the Light that brings the World of Knowledge, the Light of Ra (Ra - do - the world). And Jesus Christ was already called the Thinking Darks when they completely changed the history of his life. And as you see, it firmly "stuck" to him for centuries. The Jews always had many Jesus. This is the most common and common Hebrew name. Although, oddly enough, it came to them from Greece. Well, Christ (Christ) is not a name at all, and it means in Greek - “messiah” or “enlightened”. The question is only if the Bible says that Christ is a Christian, then how then to explain these pagan Greek names that the Dark Thinkers themselves gave him. Isn't that interesting? And this is only the smallest of those many mistakes, Isidore, which a person does not want (or cannot.)
“But how can he see them if he blindly believes in what is being presented to him.” We have to show it to people! They must know all this, North! - I again could not stand it.
“We don't owe anything to people, Isidore.” - sharply answered the North. “They are quite happy with what they believe.” And they don’t want to change anything. Would you like me to continue?
He again fenced off me tightly with a wall of “iron” confidence that he was right, and I had no choice but to nod in response, not hiding the tears of disappointment that had come through. It was pointless even to try to prove something - he lived in his “right” world, not being distracted by minor “earthly problems”.

- After the brutal death of Radomir, Magdalene decided to return to where her real House was, where once upon a time she was born into the world. Probably, we all have an inherent craving for our "roots", especially when for one reason or another it becomes bad. So she, killed by her deep grief, wounded and lonely, decided to finally return home. This place was located in the mysterious Occitania (today's France, Languedoc) and it was called the Valley of the Mages (or also the Valley of the Gods), famous for its harsh, mystical majesty and beauty. And there was no person who, having once been there, would not have loved the Valley of the Mages for the rest of his life.
“I'm sorry, North, for interrupting you, but the name of Magdalene.” whether it came from the Valley of the Mages. - unable to resist the shocking discovery, I exclaimed.
“You are absolutely right, Isidora.” - Sever smiled. - You see - you think. The real Magdalene was born about five hundred years ago in the Occitan Valley of Mages, and therefore they called her Mary - the Mage of the Valley (Mage of the Valley).
- What kind of valley is it - Valley of the Mages, North. And why have I never heard of this? Father never mentioned such a name, and not one of my teachers spoke about this?
“Oh, this is a very ancient and very powerful place, Isidora!” The earth there once gave extraordinary power. It was called the "Land of the Sun", or "Pure Land." It was created man-made, many millennia ago. And there once lived two of those whom people called Gods. They protected this Clean Earth from the "black forces", as it kept in itself the Gate of the World, which no longer exists today. But once, a very long time ago, it was the place of arrival of foreign people and foreign news. It was one of the seven "bridges" of the Earth. Destroyed, unfortunately, by the stupid mistake of Man. Later, many centuries later, gifted children began to be born in this valley. And for them, strong, but thoughtless, we created a new “meteoru” there. Which was called - Raveda (Ravad). It was like the younger sister of our Meteora, in which they also taught Knowledge, only much simpler than we taught it, since Raveda was open, without exception, to all gifted. No Secret Knowledge was given there, but only that was given that could help them live with their burden, which could teach them to know and control their amazing Gift. Gradually, different, differently gifted people from the farthest ends of the Earth began to flock to Raveda, eager to learn. And because Raveda was open specifically for everyone, sometimes “gray” gifted people came there, who were also taught Knowledge, hoping that one fine day their lost Bright Soul would definitely return to them.
And over time they called this Valley - the Valley of Mages, as if warning the uninitiated about the opportunity to meet unexpected and amazing miracles there. born by the thought and heart of the gifted. Six knights of the Temple came there with Magdalene and Vedunya Maria, who, with the help of friends who lived there, settled in their unusual castle-fortresses, standing on living “points of power”, giving the people living in them natural strength and protection.

Magdalene, for a while, retired with her young daughter to the caves, wanting to be away from any fuss, looking for peace with her whole sore soul.

Mourning Magdalene in the caves.

“Show me her, Sever.” - I could not stand it, I asked. “Please show me Magdalen.”
To my great surprise, instead of the harsh stone caves, I saw a gentle, blue sea, on the sandy shore of which a woman stood. I recognized her right away - it was Mary Magdalene. The only love of Radomir, his wife, the mother of his wonderful children. and his widow.
She stood straight and proud, unbending and strong. And only on her clean thin face lived a burning, hidden pain. She was still very much like the wondrous, bright girl that the North had once shown me. only now her mocking, sweet face was clouded by real, "adult" sadness. Magdalene was beautiful with that warm and gentle feminine beauty, which equally struck both young and old, forcing her to read, stay with her, serve her, and love her, as you can only love a dream that suddenly embodied in a person. She stood very calmly, peering intently into the distance, as if expecting something. And next to her, hugging her knees tenaciously, a tiny little girl was snuggling - the second little Magdalene. She was stunningly like her mother - the same long golden hair. the same radiant blue eyes. and the same funny, funny dimples on tender smiling cheeks. The girl was surprisingly good and funny. It was only that mother seemed so sad that the baby did not dare to bother her, but only stood quietly, cuddled up, as if she were waiting for this strange, incomprehensible mother's sadness to pass away.A gentle breeze idly played in the golden strands of Magdalen's long hair, occasionally running through her delicate cheeks, carefully touching them with a warm sea blow. She stood frozen like a statue, and only in her sad eyes was a clear expectation clearly visible. Suddenly, a white, fluffy dot appeared very far on the horizon, slowly turning into distant sails. Magdalene immediately transformed and came to life, clutching her daughter tightly to herself, and said as merrily as possible:
- Well, here we are, my treasure! You really wanted to see where mom came from to this country? I really wanted to. So we will sail with you far, far, until we reach the farthest shore where our HOUSE is. You will love him as much as I loved. I promise you.
Leaning down, Magdalene wrapped her arms around her tiny little daughter, as if wishing to protect her from the troubles that her sophisticated, affectionate soul was ripe in their future.
- Mom, tell me, dad, too, will swim with us? We can't leave him here, right? True? - and suddenly having caught herself, she asked in surprise, - Why is it so long gone. For almost two months we have not seen him. Mom, where's dad?
The eyes of Magdalene became stern and detached. And I immediately realized - her baby daughter did not yet know that dad would never swim with them again, since the same two months ago he had ended his short life on the cross. Well, and the unfortunate Magdalene, apparently, could not dare to tell this little, pure man about such a terrible, inhuman misfortune. And how could she tell her about this, so tiny and defenseless? How to explain to her that there were people who hated her kind, bright dad. What they craved for his death. And that none of the knights of the Temple - his friends - could save him.
And she answered all the same kindly and confidently, trying to calm her worried baby.
“Dad will not sail with us, my angel.” Just like your beloved brother, Svetodar. They have a duty that they must fulfill. You remember, I told you what a duty is? Remember, after all. We will sail with friends - you and me. I know you love them. You will be fine with them, my dear. And I will always be with you. I promise you.
The girl calmed down, and asked more cheerfully:
“Mom, tell me, is there a lot of little girls in your country?” Will I have a girlfriend there? And then I'm all with big and big. And it’s not interesting with them. And they don’t know how to play.
“Well, dear, what about your uncle, Radan?” - smiling, asked Magdalene. “Is it always interesting to you with him?” And he tells you funny stories, right?
The baby thought for a minute, and then very seriously declared:
- Well, maybe not so bad with them, with adults. Only I still miss friends. I'm small, right? Well, my friends should be small. And adults should only be occasionally.
Magdalene looked at her in surprise, and suddenly grabbing her daughter in her arms, loudly kissed both cheeks.
- You're right, honey! Adults should play with you only occasionally. I promise - we will find you the best friend there! You only have to wait a bit. But you know how to do it? You are the most patient girl in the world, the truth is.
This simple, warm dialogue of two lonely loving creatures sunk into my very soul. And so I wanted to believe that everything would be fine with them! That evil fate will pass them by and that their life will be bright and good. But, unfortunately, just like mine, they, I knew, would not. For what we paid such a price. Why were our fates so ruthless and cruel?
I did not have time to turn to the North to ask the next question, when a new vision appeared, from which I was simply taken aback.
In the cool shade of a huge old plane tree, four people sat on ridiculously low benches. Two of them were very young and very similar to each other. The third was a gray-haired old man, tall and strong, like a protective rock. On his knees he held a boy who was 8-9 years old by force. And of course, Sever did not need to explain to me who these people were.

I recognized Radomir right away, because there was too much left of that wonderful, bright youth that I had seen on my first visit to Meteora. He only matured a lot, became sterner and more mature. His blue, piercing eyes now looked at the world attentively and firmly, as if to say: “If you do not believe me, listen to me again, but if you still do not believe me, leave. Life is too valuable to give to those who are not worth it. ”
He was no longer that “loving”, naive boy who thought he was able to change any person. that the power to change the whole world. Now Radomir was a Warrior. His whole appearance spoke of this - his inner composure, his ascetically thin, but very strong body, the stubborn crease in the corners of his bright, compressed lips, the piercing eyes of his blue, flashing steel shade, eyes. And all the raging power in him, an incredible force that made friends respect him (and the enemies to reckon with him!) Clearly showed him a real Warrior, and certainly not the helpless and kind-hearted God whom the Christian hated by him tried to show church. And further. He had an amazing smile, which, apparently, began to appear less and less on his tired, exhausted face with heavy thoughts. But when she appeared, the whole world around him became kinder, warmed by its wonderful, boundless warmth. This warmth filled with happiness all lonely, deprived souls. And it was in him that the real essence of Radomir was revealed! In him revealed his true, loving Soul.

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