Today, the world knows a lot of pork breeds. They can be divided into three areas:
- meat is greasy.
Meat-type pigs have a number of distinctive features. Animals have an elongated body, well-developed, strong limbs. The withers are wide, the ribs are rounded and the chest is small. The main feature of these breeds is an absent fat layer and a fast rate of muscle mass gain.
The most popular are the following:
- Vietnamese Whiskers.
Meat breeds of pigs usually have a long, slightly stretched in the middle of the trunk and fairly muscular legs. The withers, sacrum and back are very wide, and the ribs are sloping. The head of such animals is slightly elongated, light. When breeding meat pigs, special attention is paid to the quality of feed. The diet should be designed so that the animal receives a sufficiently large amount of protein. Only in this case can a very large meat yield be obtained.
Pigs of breeds of this direction are particularly well suited for breeding in household plots. They gain weight very quickly and are not picky about leaving. You will have to purchase expensive cereal feed only until the pet reaches a weight of 60 kg. After that, the pig is quite allowed to transfer to a vegetable diet and waste from the table. The maximum weight that an animal of meat breed can gain when kept in a personal household is 250-300 kg. Agree, the figure is impressive. Actually the very meat of such pigs is very tender, juicy and tasty.
The best breeds
So, you decided to buy a piglet for food. What kind of meat breeds of pigs are best suited for feeding on a suburban area and which one is worth choosing? The most productive at the moment are:
- Russian large white,
- Poltava meat,
- early meat,
- Estonian bacon
These are the best meat breeds of pigs, and it is about them that we will talk further in all details.
History of large white
In the years 20-30, the country's leadership decided to develop pedigree pig farming on collective and state farms. Since there was no own base for this at that time in Russia, manufacturers had to be imported from England. These were mumps of a large white breed. 257 wild boars and 355 queens were brought to Russia. At the moment, large white makes up 80% of the total population in our country. With her participation, almost all other meat breeds of pigs in Russia were created. Modern Russian large white is distinguished from English by increased fecundity and a stronger constitution.
The main features of the breed are considered a light suit, a slim physique and a tightened back. The head of these pigs, like most meat breeds, is elongated and light, slightly concave in profile. The chest is powerful and wide. The back is well developed, long, without interception behind the shoulder blades. The sides of large whites are deep, and the abdomen is taut. The nipple of the uterus is at least 12. Legs are not too high, dry, strong.
Productivity and Fertility
The weight of breeding boars at the age of 3 years can reach 350 kg, queens - 260 kg. In the litter there are usually about 10-11 piglets. The weight of the nest on the 21st day after farrowing (pig milk) is about 50 kg. Young growth develops very well and under the right conditions of detention practically does not get sick.
Landrace pig breed
Such animals were first obtained in 1895 in Denmark by crossing a large white and local pig. Among the features of the exterior of this breed, it is possible to note, first of all, a white coat, long ears hanging down over the eyes, as well as a light head and thin skin, practically devoid of bristles.
The weight of boars can reach 360 kg, queens - 280 kg. The body length of adult animals is up to 195 cm in pigs and 175 cm in pigs. Thus, it is the most beef breed of pigs to date. Like large white, landrace is often used as a parent when breeding new breeds. In addition to high productivity, landrace also differ in multiplicity. One uterus brings up to 11 piglets.
The disadvantage of the breed is considered, first of all, whimsicality regarding the conditions of detention and diet.
It is also quite large animals. Such breeds of pigs as Estonian, German white short-eared, landrace and large white were the maternal ones when breeding bacon steel. As a result of such a complex crossing, we got pigs of large weight, light colored with pink skin in places. At first, the breed was called Estonian fold. In 1961, it was decided to rename it to Estonian bacon.
The body length of sexually mature boars of this breed is about 185 cm, chest circumference is 165 cm. In queens, respectively, 160-165 and 140-145 cm. The weight of an adult wild boar can reach 330 kg, mumps - 240 kg. At one time, the latter can bring 11-12 piglets.
The body constitution of Estonian bacon is strong, and the head is light, medium in size with a slightly concave profile. The ears of these animals are large, drooping, directed slightly forward. The body with a broad back is stretched in the middle. The legs are muscular, strong, broad-shouldered. The breasts of both boars and queens are wide and deep.
In terms of care, Estonian bacon is unpretentious. There is practically no lunging of young animals, and animals are completely undemanding to feed. The meat yield is about 60%. The taste characteristics it is very good.
The disadvantages of the breed include, first of all, the fact that some of its representatives sometimes have a saggy butt, and friability of attendants is observed.
There are purely Russian breeds of meat pigs. For example, Urzhum. It was bred in Russia on the collective farms of the Kirov region by crossing a local fold with improved large white. The features of the exterior of these animals include a long body of meat forms and large sizes. The head of the Urzhum pigs is average. Not particularly large ears hang down. The back is long, slightly arched. Hams and sacrum are well developed, the belly is tightened, and the sides are rounded. Legs are strong, with strong hooves. The color of Urzhum pigs is only white. A wild boar of this breed can reach a weight of about 300 kg, a sow - 240 kg. Over farrow, the pig can bring 11-12 cubs. At the moment, animals of this breed are bred mainly in the Kirov region and the Republic of Mari El.
Breeds of meat pigs are bred in Ukraine. Very productive, for example, is Poltava. It was bred through the complex crossing of langranes with large white and Mirgorod pigs. The body of these animals is long and wide, and the constitution is strong. Poltava pigs differ from most other meat breeds in pronounced meat forms. The color of the animals is white. Mature boars reach a weight of 350 kg, adult uterus - 250 kg. At one time, the pig can bring 10-12 goals. Sometimes there are more piglets. Thus, a fairly high fecundity should be attributed to the merits of the breed. In addition, Poltava is characterized by unpretentiousness in leaving.
Meat breeds of pigs in Ukraine are bred by many private traders and farmers. And it is Poltava that is considered the most productive. An indirect disadvantage of this breed can be considered only that it grows well and is gaining weight exclusively in Ukraine.
It is also a young breed, obtained in 1993. 19 scientific institutions and universities of the country took part in its creation. The work was carried out in 73 of the largest collective and state farms of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and Moldova. The Poltava, Belorussian and Rostov meat breeds of pigs became the parents for the precocious.
The live weight of an adult wild boar is 300-320 kg, pigs - 230-240 kg. Among other things, early meat is quite high fertility. For farrowing, the uterus brings about 11-12 goals. The precocity of the breed is 180 days. In its composition, it has 19 production lines and 3 lines of Siberian breeding. There are also steppe, Krasnodar, Lipetsk and Leningrad pig breeds. Early ripened meat was once bred throughout the country.
This American breed was registered in 1883. Its distinctive features are large and very rough physique with a strong skeleton. Several red American breeds became the parent for the duroc. The suit of pigs can vary from golden to brown or even dark cherry. The main advantage of duroc is considered early maturity. These pigs have the largest weight gain per day during fattening (more than 1 kg). Animals of other meat breeds gain no more than 920 g. The adult duroc boar reaches a weight of 380 kg, mumps - 250-310 kg. In terms of fertility, this breed is unfortunately inferior to most others. For one farrow, the uterus can bring 9-10 cubs. At the same time, piglets weigh very little - 141 kg. Therefore, at the moment, Durocs are mainly used as a parent breed in the production of highly productive hybrids.
This breed was bred specifically for keeping in the climatic conditions of the North Caucasus. It was received in the 70s. Its distinctive features are primarily black-and-white suit and average body size. The head of these pigs is light, without concavity in profile. The mass of an adult wild boar can reach 310-320 kg, pigs - 220-230 kg.
Now you know what kind of meat breeds of pigs exist. The ones discussed above are among the most productive. For a personal farm, it is best to purchase precocious meat, large white or Poltava breed (for Ukraine). These are the most unpretentious, large and prolific pigs. You don’t have to spend too much money on their cultivation. The result will certainly be very good.
It is considered the very first meat type that was bred by breeders. The birthplace of animals is in the UK. The ancestor is called the red-black Staffordshire pig without the influx of extraneous blood. The most popular pigs have won among English, American and Canadian breeders. Temvors is characterized by the following features:
- resistance to frost.
Pigs have a dense physique, a developed skeleton and muscles. The body is not wide, reaches a length of 140 cm. The legs are short, well developed. The head has an elongated shape, the auricles are wide and pointed, the cervical region is thick, long. Most often you can find animals with brown-red color or bright red. The uterus is infertile, in one nest no more than 10 babies.
Estonian bacon pigs
Animals are meat, and occurred as a result of breeding work with Landrace and white German. The final formation of the breed falls on 1965. Pigs with a dense constitution, long body, wide dorsal region and short legs. The head has a small size, it has a concave profile. Most often, animals have a white color, through the stubble you can see the pink skin.
An adult male boar gains weight up to 350 kg, pigs are slightly smaller - by 100 kg. The body is about 184 cm long for males and 164 cm for females. From one uterus receive up to 12 piglets. The average daily gain of a pig is more than 700 grams. Omnivores, are not demanding on the food base and the conditions in which they are kept. Young pigs survive perfectly. Meat products are valued for their excellent palatability.
It is considered an ancient British breed of bacon orientation. Animals are characterized by high productivity, but females are small-fruited - in one nest no more than 8 piglets. The body is elongated, the legs are short, the hooves are straight. The ears are small in size, located on the light head. The traditional color is black, with a wide strip of white hair running along the sternum and front pair of legs.
Hampshire pigs boast a minimal layer of fat, thanks to which animals can live in almost any climate. It is worth noting that pigs are very shy. With regular stressful situations, animals cease to gain mass.
Grown individuals gain weight up to 251 kg, producers are slightly larger - about 322 kg. The average daily gain of a pig is almost a kilogram. Animals are undemanding to the feed base.
Belongs to young breeds, it has been known about it since the end of the XIX century. The birthplace of animals is Belgium. Pietrens appeared due to breeding work on breeding large English pigs with Berkshire.
The animals are characterized by a wide body, massive hams and well-expressed muscle mass. Distinctive features include small ears. Most often, owners of spotted colors, white-gray or white-black are found.
Among the shortcomings, one can highlight the special requirements for the feed base.
Pigs are infertile, but piglets have high early maturity. By 280 days, the baby is gaining weight about 131 kg. Adult animals can weigh up to 270 kg. It can be used as improvers to increase meat production in other breed groups.
The breed is very popular and widespread throughout. This is due to the unique rates of mass gain and the quality of meat products. The birthplace of animals is in America. Representatives are distinguished by a large body, a medium-sized head, and auricles that hang. The body is short, limbs are short.
The average daily gain is 1000 grams, the yield of slaughter products is 86%. The average weight of the boar is 380 kg, and sows 310 kg. Animals do not belong to multiple. One sow can bring no more than 8 babies. A significant drawback is late ripening. By the third week of life, young animals are able to gain a mass of 15 kg.
This species belongs to the fashionable and popular breed groups. The animals have small sizes, but at the same time they have excellent indicators for the yield of slaughtered products - 85%. Pigs are premature and very prolific. At the age of 365 days, sows can produce offspring in about 18 piglets. The average weight of wild boars is about 150 kg, sows are 50 kg less. For feeding use vegetable crops and angry mass. The meat belongs to the high category with a low fat content.
Vietnamese are characterized by a strong immune system, precocity, unpretentiousness, omnivorousness, cleanliness. The breed can be recommended for breeding on private farms.
Precocious meat pigs
The breed is the newest, the formation of which falls on 1993. Domestic scientists worked together with Ukrainian, Moldavian and Belarusian colleagues on the breeding. The following animals took part in the crossing:
- Belarusian meat,
It is advantageous to keep early-ripening meat because of the rapid mass gain, intensive growth and small cash investments in feed.
The pigs have a snow-white color, the trunk is powerful, with a wide body and dense hams. Slaughter yield is 61%. The sebaceous layer in the ridge is not thick - not more than 2.7 cm. The average weight of the producer boar is 321 kg, and its body is more than 1.5 meters in length. The sow weighs 240 kg while they are multiple, from one pig you can get over 9 piglets.By the age of six months, young growth weighs 100 kg or more. The breed adapts perfectly to any climatic zone.
Among the variety of breeds of meat, there are the most recognized animals, which are called landrace. The homeland of the pigs is Denmark; for breeding, the Danish breed and large white were used. Characteristic features include a well-developed body, a straight back and a narrow chest. The head is small in size, passes into the cervical spine, wide and thick. The auricles are large, hanging.
Landrace has the following advantages:
- high quality meat products,
- fat is absent.
Adult pigs boast a trunk length of 180 cm and an average weight of 300 kg. A piglet gains up to 0.7 kg of live weight per day. From one sow you can get 9 piglets.
Relate to young breeds, whose formation was in the 1980s. They were engaged in breeding near Rostov, here they crossed the North Caucasian breed and Pietren. The body is wide and massive, well-developed hams. The predominant color is motley-black, the limbs are short, the head is small, the profile is straight.
The advantages include the following positive features:
- frost resistance
- fast ripening
- good immune system
- high yield of meat products,
- unpretentiousness to the content,
- undemanding to the feed base.
Don sows are productive, for one farrow 11 pigs are obtained. The average weight of the boar is 320 kg, sows - 220 kg. The latter have a perfectly developed maternal instinct.
There are two subspecies: meat-greasy (old) and meat. The latter is quite young, it was bred not so long ago, but it managed to reach 10th place in popularity among domestic breeds. Animals differ in massive physique, deep and wide sternum. The predominant color is black with white spots, you can meet motley pigs.
The weight of boars is 360 kg with an average trunk length of 170 cm. Sows are more miniature, gain mass of 200 kg, are multiparous - after farrowing more than 10 piglets are born. The breed is cold-resistant, precocious and picky in feed. The safety of offspring at a high level.
The homeland of pigs is in the UK, and animals are called Cornish in a different way. The following breeds were used for breeding:
- Chinese black
- English long-eared.
However, the greatest popularity among large blacks is in our country.
Among the main advantages are the following:
- correct body tuck
- suitable for grazing,
- adaptation to low temperatures,
- high yield of meat products,
- prolific animals.
The breed is large, the main color is black, the constitution is loose. Boars gain a mass of 320 kg, sows 100 kg less. After farrowing, up to 10 piglets are born. Young growth is able to gain at least 0.7 kg of weight per day.
The birthplace of animals is located near Poltava and was bred in the 40s of the twentieth century. Pigs have a long, wide trunk, a deep chest and strong limbs. The head is small, a characteristic concave profile, the auricles have a forward bend. The predominant suit is black and pockmarked.
The mass of an adult boar reaches 300 kg, sows - 200 kg. Animals are fertile, after farrowing 10 piglets are born, which are characterized by rapid growth, they are able to gain 0.8 kg per day. The breed belongs to the unpretentious, from one animal 65% are obtained at a slaughter yield.
Belongs to the first meat breed bred by Ukrainian experts. The animals are characterized by a large physique, a strong skeleton, a long head and large hanging ears. The sternum is deep and wide. The limbs are short, the hooves are straight.
The boar-producer is gaining mass of 350 kg, the sow - a hundred less. Animals with good fertility, after one farrowing, more than 10 piglets appear in the light. Young growth is precocious and can gain 0.7 kg per day. A solid mass of 100 kg is gaining by six months of age. Large white is easy to maintain and easy to feed.
Popular breeds of meat pigs and their characteristics
There are about 150 varieties of these animals. Individuals grown for meat have their own distinctive features. Their muscular body is longer compared to other species, and in some breeds due to the greater number of vertebrae.
Their head is small, the back of the body is larger than the front and is distinguished by massive hams and a wide sacrum. The sternum is shallow, the sides are rounded, and the length of the body exceeds the width.
Animals of this breed are prone to obesity, although this is more dependent on the quality of the feed.
This breed has a red color, which as a result of selection became golden reddish. The species is intended for breeding in a harsh northern climate, therefore it has high endurance and is unpretentious in maintenance.
The pig's body is covered with stiff bristles and is firmly folded.
- oblong torso,
- curved back
- a small head with large erect ears
- elongated snout.
The sow is of medium fecundity, but the offspring is distinguished by good immunity and excellent survival.
This is one of the oldest species, which, as a result of crossing, got a characteristic black color with a white-pink strip in the area of the shoulder blades and a trunk with strong straight legs.
- a small head
- medium length snout
- straight hooves
- small ears,
- elongated body.
The advantages include endurance and high tolerance of diseases. Animals quickly adapt to bad weather conditions and can be kept not only in pens, but also on pastures.
The breed allows you to get tender meat with a thin layer of fat. In Russia, purebred individuals are very rarely used, and they prefer to cross them with other species, for example, with animals of the Duroc breed.
A characteristic of the species is a large mass of adult animals: females can be fed up to 220 kg, and the weight of the boar ranges from 230 to 255 kg.
Also, the advantages include:
- high productivity
- resistance to dangerous viral infections,
- low predisposition to obesity.
Among the shortcomings: intolerance to severe climatic conditions and, as a result, the need to maintain the required temperature for living in pens, poor stress resistance, as well as the need to eat high-quality feed.
Due to its good metabolism, pigs are not fatty. And the diet includes protein products (milk, cottage cheese, yogurt), raw and boiled root crops.
A popular species, which is characterized by black skin color and small size. Body weight is about 97-100 kg. The animal has a small head, erect ears and a wide body.
This is a highly productive breed. Females are multiple, the number of piglets per farrow reaches 15-18 pcs., Their weight by age is 7-9 months. is already 78-82 kg.
After slaughter, the meat yield is up to 75%, it has a delicate taste and has a low cholesterol content.
Distinctions and features of breeds
All breeds that belong to different groups differ in a certain physique. By body type, there are such pigs:
- bacon (Estonian and landrace),
- universal (large white),
- predominantly greasy (Ukrainian steppe and Mirgorod),
- meat and meat (steppe white).
All names define the main product performance.
For meat group such external signs are characteristic:
- lightweight ham and a small breast volume,
- lightweight front end
- significantly elongated body.
The size of the chest in these animals is much smaller than the size of the body.
Greasy species differ in such external signs:
- rather heavy front end
- large chest volume
- very wide and deep body,
- heavy and meaty ganache,
- meaty and poured ham.
The volume of the girth of the chest is significantly greater than or commensurate with the size of the trunk.
Universal and meat-bearing varieties occupy an intermediate group between the greasy and meat types.
Today, in our country, the most popular breed is a white large pig. The high popularity of this breed of pigs in our country is explained by its qualities. Pigs of this breed are well adapted to feed and climatic conditions. But they do not tolerate severe cold and heat. A white breed pig was brought to our country from England. Due to the large selection and genetic work, high acclimatization, the white breed is now successfully bred in Europe, America, China, Canada, Japan, Ukraine and Belarus.
Large white pigs can be fed to obtain carcasses with a large amount of meat, or bacon, or lard. Pigs of this breed are distinguished by a harmonious and coarse physique, have a white suit and strong forms.
The body size in boars reaches up to 190-195 cm, and in sows 150-160 cm. A large head with a high forehead, neck is thick and long. The ears are not thick and large, slightly inclined forward, but do not hang down.
Back: long and wide, without interception behind the shoulder blades. Chest: deep and massive. The loin is wide. Back: not saggy and wide. Round ham. White pigs are short in stature, as well as strong legs with even and wide hooves.
The skin is elastic and firm without folds. The bristles, which are densely located on the whole body, are thin and smooth.
Sows have excellent fertility. For farrowing give up to 14 piglets, milk yield of about 55-65 kg. Pigs in 2 months can reach a live weight of about 22-27 kg. For 170-185 days, the piglets reach the control mark of 100 kg.
The peculiarity of the white large pig: good and quick adaptability to feed and climatic content. Flexible genetic structure, high fertility and early maturity.
Disadvantages: high tendency to obesity. Not very pleasant appearance: poorly expressed ham, drooping sacrum. Weakly tolerate extreme heat and cold.
In the 19th century, a unique breed of pigs, the barbecue, was bred in a selective way. A distinctive feature of this breed is the hairline: thick, forming curls that resemble astrakhan.
Initially, the Hungarian Mangalitza and the British Lincolnshire breed were bred. From each other, they differed only in the color of the hairline. These breeds completely left the market in 1971, because they could not compete with the fast-growing and fast-growing breeds. There is only one left in the world today Hungarian breed of these pigs.
Features of the hairline allow pigs to easily endure the winter, and in the summer to escape from various insects. In the people they are also called "sheep pigs." By the color of the hairline, the brazier is divided into 4 types: white, red, black and mixed. Black view on the brink of extinction.
Mangalits pigs do not need special conditions of maintenance and care: they feed on various plant foods, do not require an insulated room, and do not need vaccinations.
The meat belongs to the group of delicacies. Neither the beauty of animals, nor the various prohibitions, nor the small livestock stop lovers of manglic meat. Today in the world there are a fairly small number of these pigs.
In the first farrow the sow gives about 3-6 piglets, and in further farrowing the number of piglets increases. Within six months, the piglets are fully formed.
This breed of pigs quickly became popular in farmers and yard households. The fat-bellied pig was brought to Canada and Europe in 1984 from Vietnam.
Vietnamese pig is a bacon breed. High quality meat, a small amount of fat and taste differences from other breeds is what makes them attractive for breeding.
The sow of this breed can reach 110-125 kg, and the boar 160 kg. Meat yield has a record high 74-85% of live weight. Vietnamese pig has great fecundity and precocity. After 5 months, the pigs become sexually mature, and after six months the sow already produces the first offspring, from 15-18 piglets at a time. For a year, the sow gives about 25 piglets and so on for 15 years.
At the age of six months, when the weight of pigs reaches a live weight of about 74-81 kg, animals are slaughtered. Qualitatively, meat, with a small amount of cholesterol, diverges instantly.
The high quality of meat is explained by the fact that the body of these pigs perfectly processes plant foods. About 60% of roughage is in the diet. The content of this breed of pigs on pastures significantly reduces the cost of feed. Special balanced feeds, all kinds of root crops and green feeds are the main ration of Vietnamese pigs.
Lop-bellied pigs are very clean. If it is possible to walk, then pigs relieve the need for walking in one place. At night, when it is impossible to go on a walk, the animals will endure until the morning. The room will always be dry and clean. In the summer, especially in the heat, it is imperative to leave fresh water.
Due to the good fecundity and low cost of feed, raising Vietnamese pigs is quite a profitable business.
The difference of the breed: persistent immunity to various diseases and early ripening, calm disposition, unpretentiousness, omnivorous.
The above pig species are among the most productive. For personal farming, it is advisable to choose a Vietnamese, large white or precocious meat. These are the most prolific, large and unpretentious pigs. You don’t have to spend a lot of money on their cultivation, and the result will certainly be excellent.
The most meat breed of pigs in Russia
The most productive species are those that, when slaughtered, give a meat yield of 110 kg or more. Animals of this species are distinguished by fast weight gain and unpretentiousness in feeding. To obtain the expected results, it is necessary to keep pigs in spacious and clean pigsties, as well as regularly undergo veterinary examinations.
In Russia, rocks are grown with good adaptation to various climatic conditions and high stress resistance.
Ukrainian steppe white
Characterized by a large body mass in adults, a strong skeleton, an elongated shape of the head and long, drooping ears. The body is oblong, short legs have straight hooves.
The species is beneficial in breeding due to the fecundity of sows and the rapid weight gain of offspring. By six months, piglets weigh about 95 kg. They are unpretentious in content and do not require expensive feeding.
The species is popular not only in Russia, but also abroad. Pigs have average productivity. Females bring up to 8 piglets, and their daily gain is 650-720 g. The weight of the boar reaches 350 kg, and the meat yield during slaughter is up to 63%. The thickness of the fat layer is 25-29 mm.
Appearance is typical for this type of animal: a long body, a strong neck and barrel-shaped sides. Hams reach the hock. The bristles are black.
Unlike greasy varieties
There is no clear border between meat and other types of pigs raised in Russia. But as the main difference in productivity, the ability of the breed at the genetic level to not produce adipose tissue stands out.
That is, the animal is raised to obtain high-quality meat, which is impossible to obtain from animals of the greasy type.
What breed to choose for home breeding
When an animal is purchased for growing in a private farm, it is worth paying attention to the main indicators characteristic of different breeds.
This is not only the final yield of meat or fat, but also the fecundity of sows, the survival of the offspring, adaptation to weather conditions and difficulties in feeding and keeping.
The easiest for home breeding include: Don breed, Ukrainian steppe white, large black, Estonian bacon or Vietnamese whiskers.