Sages are spicy aromatic plants whose essential oils are concentrated mainly in green leaves and young shoots. The name of the plant came from the Latin words salvus - to be healthy, salvare - to save, protect, as some species have been effectively used in medicine for centuries.
Salvia nemorosa (Salvia nemorosa)
He is forest sage (Salvia sylvestris). It blooms from late June to September, from August - weaker, but this problem can be solved by the timely removal of wilted inflorescences. Leaves are slightly wrinkled, glabrous, decreasing in size from top to bottom. Oak sage has the largest number of varieties among sages. They differ in the color of inflorescences, the height of the bush and the timing of flowering.
Varieties of sage oak
Clary Sage (Salvia glutinosa)
It deserves our attention due to its very impressive size, late flowering, and a pale yellow color of flowers that is rare for sages - pale yellow. Inflorescences up to 30 cm long bloom from late August to late autumn, until frost damage them. Bushes with numerous stems reach a height of 90 cm, covered with large pubescent leaves on long stalks. The color of the foliage is also unusual - whereas in most sages it is saturated green, this species has yellowish-green, light leaves.
Sage meadow (Salvia pratensis)
It has very long loose branching violet-blue inflorescences up to 40–50 cm, bush height 50–80 cm. It blooms for a long time - from mid-June to late autumn. Since the second half of July, flowering has weakened a little, but in September a new wave begins.
Salvia planting and care
- Landing: sowing seeds in open ground in spring or before winter. Seeds are sown on seedlings from mid-February to early March, and seedlings are planted in open ground in late May or early June.
- Bloom: from June to autumn frosts.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
- The soil: rich in lime, light, dry, permeable.
- Watering: evening, after drying of the topsoil.
- Feeding: the first time - in the seedling period with a weak solution of complex mineral fertilizer, the second time - during the budding period.
- Reproduction: one and biennial species - only by seeds, perennials - by seeds, division of the bush and stem cuttings.
- Pests: thrips, aphids, spider mites, whiteflies, snails and slugs.
- Disease peronosporosis, root cancer, rust, powdery mildew, chlorosis, fusarium wilt, rhizoctonia.
Salvia flower - description
Salvia flower is a rhizome plant, perennial in nature, but in our latitudes it is almost always grown as an annual or biennial, and although some species tolerate winter well in the garden, they freeze in snowless or light snow winters. The stems of Salvia are erect or ascending, tetrahedral, sometimes reaching a height of 120 cm. The leaves are whole, sometimes pinnately dissected, located opposite on the petioles, the upper side of the plate is darker green in color, the lower side is whitish.
Small flowers are collected at the ends of the stems in complex whorled spike-shaped or paniculate inflorescences 15-20 cm long; brightly colored bracts - pink, white, lilac or purple attract the eye. The fruit of salvia consists of four nuts. Salvia seeds reach maturity one month after the beginning of flowering and retain germination up to five years.
When to Sow Salvia
Salvia is one-year and two-year-old is grown from seeds, perennial salvia is propagated by both seeds and vegetative methods - dividing the bush or cuttings. Growing salvia from seeds involves the use of both seedling and seedling methods. With the seedlingless method, seeds are sown in the ground under winter or spring.
But such a species, for example, as shiny salvia, or sparkling salvia (Salvia splendens), propagates exclusively by seedlings.
By the way, in stores, both seed and granules are sold as planting material, which, in addition to seed, contain substances that make seedlings stronger and more resistant, but sprout granules more slowly than ordinary seeds. When is the best time to sow salvia seedlings? Sowing salvia in boxes is carried out from mid-February to early March.
Seedlings of Salvia
Sow seeds or granules in moist loose soil superficially or to a depth of not more than 2 mm, the temperature of the content is about 25 ºС. Watering the crops will have to be in the pan or from the sprayer, and so that the soil remains wet longer, cover the box with crops with paper. Shoots will appear within two weeks or a month. Your next task is to grow seedlings with a strong root system that will allow the plant to quickly take root in the ground.
When the third or fourth true leaf is developed, the sprouts pinch to stimulate tillering. From April, you can begin hardening of seedlings, for which the night temperature is lowered to 10 ºС.
When to plant salvia
Salvia prefers light sandy soil, rich in lime, humus and water permeability. The site should be sunny, because all types of salvia are sun-loving, and only adhesive salvia can grow in partial shade. Salvia seedlings are planted in the soil when the threat of night frost retreats - around the beginning of June.
How to plant salvia
Planting and caring for salvia will not seem difficult even for novice gardeners, especially since the hardened seedlings prepared for life in the garden tolerate the transplant. In each hole dug at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other, before handling the bush of salvia from the pot, add a handful of humus.
Varieties of sage meadow
Perennial sages in garden design
Due to the peculiar appearance and unusual blue-violet palette in the color of inflorescences, perennial sages will add a unique flavor to any corner of the garden. Sages are used to create bright spots on the lawn, perfectly combined with plants of contrasting colors, for example, yellow or white - with irises, clematis, echinacea, lilies. Rose sage will become worthy companions, emphasizing its beauty and standing out against its background with the blue of its flowers. Varieties and species of different heights can be used in a mixborder, giants (adhesive sage, oak sageAmethyst) placing in the background, and medium-sized plants closer to the front edge of the flower garden. Miniature varieties (sage oakMarcus, Sensation Deep Blue Improved, Sensation Deep Rose Improved, Sensation White, Superba) look great not only in the mixborder, but also in containers that can be dug in the garden for the winter. Effective planting of sage with yarrow, sedum, poppy, delphinium. From sage you can create a beautiful border that will be stably decorative: all three species are not peculiar to bare from the bottom and fall apart. If the garden has a place for aromatic herbs, sages there will be indispensable.
Choosing a Sage Planting Site
Sages oak and meadow are photophilous and drought tolerant. Excessive moisture is detrimental to them. Clary sage - an inhabitant of forests - prefers penumbra and shady places with moist, fertile soils. The mechanical composition is most acceptable light and medium loam, rich in lime and humus. On heavy soils with low water permeability, sages rot and are more likely to freeze in winter.
It consists in two or three times top dressing with a complex mineral fertilizer (spring, summer, after the first wave of flowering and, preferably, in the fall), removal of wilted inflorescences after flowering and pruning in late autumn or early spring. Compost mulching in the fall stimulates the growth of new shoots at the base of the bush and prevents premature aging of the plant.
It is easiest to propagate perennial sages by dividing the bush, stem cuttings and layering. The division of the bush is best done in late August - early September. Sage is propagated by stem semi-lignified cuttings in late June - July. Cuttings with two to three pairs of leaves, planted in perlite or a mixture of sand or perlite with the ground, easily root. To root the stem lay, a long shoot is pinned to the ground, and after one to two months you can cut off the branch with the formed roots from the mother bush. In the first year, young plants are recommended to be covered with spruce branches for the winter.
What does sage look like
Ornamental and medicinal plants of the sage genus (salvia) belong to the family Iasnatkovye. Around the world distributed about 700 species of this culture. The herbaceous plant has a tetrahedral erect stem. Its height sometimes reaches 1.2 m. Simple or cirrus leaves are pubescent, opposite on the stem. Basal leaf blades large (8-15 cm), sessile. The rest are on petioles.
Culture begins to bloom from the second year of life. An inflorescence of spikes or a false whorl often consists of blue-violet flowers with two-lipped corollas. Salvia blooms from July to late autumn. August - September - the time of ripening fruit nuts. Seeds retain germination for about 3 years.
Types of Sage
Wild species of salvia grow in subtropical and temperate climates. Description of some varieties of culture:
- Salvia officinalis (Salvia officialis) reaches 75 cm in height. In different varieties, the color of the leaves changes from light green to burgundy. Light purple flowers are collected in 10 pieces per inflorescence false whorl. The essential oil of the plant is rich in pinene, alkaloids, camphor, tannins. Fruits contain glycerides and linoleic acid. Wild varieties are found in southeastern Europe.
- Clary (Salvia sclarea). Plant height - 40 cm. In nature, distributed in the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe. Medicinal culture contains coumarins in the roots. Its essential oil has anti-inflammatory, wound healing properties. The most popular among gardeners are early Crimean varieties, Ascension, Moldavian.
- Sage white (Salvia apiana). The natural habitat of the culture is North America. The species is distinguished by gray-white wrinkled leaves and a rich bitter aroma. The essential oil of this honey plant has a medicinal antifungal property, it is used as an antispasmodic.
- Sage meadow or field (Salvia pratensis) is found in Europe. Perennial grows up to 70 cm. The root leaves of the bush are large (up to 15 cm), long-leaved. Towards the apex, the size of leaf blades and the length of petioles are reduced. The top of the stem is framed by small sessile foliage. The color of the flowers can be white, pink, purple. Essential oil of leaves and inflorescences has an expectorant, tonic, antibacterial properties.
- Sage Oak (Salvia nemorosa) grows in the steppes of Europe. Honey plant up to 90 cm tall with long (10-12 cm) narrow leaves. Dark purple flowers are downy. The culture grows on loose fertile soils, tolerates partial shade. By selection, decorative varieties were created - dwarf Marcus 25 cm high, Caradonna with an almost black stem color, Adriana with white inflorescences, and Amethist - with large pink flowers.
- Salvia horminumova (Salvia horminum). The birthplace of the species is the Mediterranean. The height of the flower is 40-60 cm, the leaves are downy. Salvia flower has bright pink and purple bracts located around the stem for 4-6 pieces. In a temperate climate, Salvia horminum is cultivated as an annual. Popular varieties: White Swan, Pink Sandy, Oxford Blue.
- Sage shiny or sparkling (Salvia splendens). A perennial shrub 0.7-1 m high native to tropical Brazil. It has red or purple flowers, an ellipsoid foliage with jagged edges 5-7 cm long. In a temperate climate, the species is grown as an annual crop.
- Sage fortune tellers or narcotic (Slvia divinrum) is distributed only in the mountainous regions of Central America. A perennial shrub 1.5-2 m high, its white flowers are collected in an inflorescence of ears. A psychotropic substance is produced from the leaves of the culture - salvinolin A. The species received an unusual name because it is used by shaman Indians in rituals.
- Sage steppe (Salvia stepposa). A perennial plant with a height of 30-60 cm is common in the steppe zone of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Its stalk is erect, not pubescent. Large leaves are opposite on the stem. Blue-violet flowers have a pubescent calyx. They are collected in 4-6 pieces per inflorescence false whorl. Blossoms culture from June to August.
How to plant sage in the country
Salvia is grown in the country from seeds or seedlings. The flower loves well-lit areas, loose fertile land. You can not plant sage in the area where plants of the Yasnotkov family were grown before. In one place, perennial sage varieties grow 7-8 years.
Features of soil preparation:
- Heavy clay soil is not suitable for planting salvia: after rain, the water stagnates in it, causing the roots to get wet and rot. In winter, culture freezes in such a land. To improve the composition of clay soil, humus and sand are added (1 bucket per sq. M).
- In autumn, when preparing the flower garden for the spring planting of salvia, the soil is dug up with humus (compost) at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 sq. M. m. Close up of phosphorus-potassium mineral fertilizers (20 g of potassium sulfate and double superphosphate per 1 sq. m).
- Acidic soil is dug up with lime (0.2-0.5 kg / sq. M). To neutralize too alkaline soil, make gypsum (2-3 kg / 10 sq. M). You can check the pH with a litmus indicator, which is sold in the agro shop. Acceptable soil acidity is 5.5-6.5 pH.
Salvia is planted in the greenhouse in May. For planting seeds in open ground, the best time is the beginning of June. Seeds germinate at an average daily temperature of 20-22 ° C. Sometimes the sowing is postponed to October, then the soil of the flower garden is fertilized in the spring. During autumn planting, only dry seeds are laid in the ground. Before sowing in the spring, planting material is kept in a growth stimulator Kornevin, according to the instructions for use.
The algorithm for planting seedlings in April:
- Place drainage at the bottom of the landing container. For this, it is better to use expanded clay. The material is saturated with moisture and gradually gives it to the soil.
- Pour the mixture of seedlings on top of the drainage and water well.
- At a distance of 10 cm from each other, make grooves with a depth of 1-1.5 cm.
- Lay the seeds at a distance of 3-5 cm from each other.
- Fill the furrows with soil, moisten with a spray bottle.
- Cover the container with plastic wrap to preserve moisture and heat, put on the windowsill of the south window.
- Moisten the soil as the top layer dries.
- Open the film for 5-10 minutes a day so that mold does not form on the surface of the soil.
Shoots will appear approximately 2 weeks after planting the seeds. Further seedling care:
- Dive seedlings into peat pots after the appearance of 2 leaves.
- To harden seedlings - to take out on a warm sunny day in the open air.
- Plant seedlings in open ground when the air warms up to 22–25 ° C according to a 20x50 cm pattern.
- If heavy cooling is expected, cover the bed with agrofibre.
Sage loves moderate watering. Stagnant water in the ground causes the root system of the flower to rot. Salvia care consists in periodic watering. On sandy loam soils - twice a week, on loamy soils - once every 7-10 days. When growing sage seedlings in open ground, it is necessary to ensure that the top layer of the earth does not dry out by more than 5-7 cm.
The annual salvia top dressing contributes to:
- increase the number of buds
- extension of the flowering period,
- brighter colors
- strengthening the roots
- the rapid growth of young shoots.
At the beginning of the growing season, salvia is fertilized with slurry. To obtain it, horse or cow manure is poured with water 1:10, left to ferment for 10 days. Then the slurry is diluted again 1:10 and the bushes are watered at the rate of 2.5 liters per 1 sq. m. When using bird droppings, the water content in solutions is doubled.
Instead of organic matter, in the early spring it is possible to enrich the earth with nitrogen mineral fertilizers. To do this, dissolve 50 g of urea in a bucket of water and water salvia (3-5 l / sq. M based on soil fertility). Before flowering plants use potassium-phosphorus mineral fertilizers (20 g of potassium monophosphate per 10 l of water). Dosage - 0.5 l for an adult bush. For foliar top dressing (spraying) apply nitroamophos: 2 tbsp. tablespoons per 10 liters of water.
Salvia Divinorum first experience
After the first reception of the dex, there was more than one, I will tell about them later, and now I want to describe my acquaintance with this wonderful plant - Salvia Divinorum, or Sage of the Diviners.
As always, after reading the information on the Internet, I quite consciously decided to try sage. I found an old friend who was able to sell me half a gram of this magic grass. He said to divide half a gram into 4 doses. So they did. There were three of us, divided into 4 equal parts, some decided to leave, someone for later.
We decided to smoke at a friend's house. There were problems with wiring in his room, and the chandelier did not work. But the table lamp worked wonderfully, which created a soft, favorable atmosphere. We decided to smoke in turn, and I, as a fighter for the idea, and the desire to kill myself, was the first to smoke. Sage itself was hammered into a small pipe with which grass was smoked before, that's why I trusted her. He made two thrusts, handed the receiver to a friend, sat on the sofa and began to wait. At first, I did not feel anything, and decided that it did not work, yet. did not disconnect at all. When I came to my senses, I found myself inside some unknown plane around which I sensed speed. For myself, I realized that I see speed. I lay, and flew very quickly, in a direction to the left of myself. Inside I was very sickly flattened, and I liked it. I began to hear music from the speakers, something melodic, not annoying, was playing, and I realized that I like it because it does not load. I merged with the sofa together, and felt the incredible speed inside myself. But a little later it became annoying, and I was a little scared, and wanted something to quickly end it. Paranoid thoughts appeared that it was forever and that I would never get out of here. The feelings that I experienced inside myself cannot be conveyed, so I won’t even try, I think if something similar happens for someone, we will understand each other :)
And yes, I almost forgot, my body threw into a fever, and I sweated. When I was a bit subdivided, I noticed that a friend was filming me. I tried to wave my hand and say that I would have stopped, but nothing came of it. The hand was insanely heavy, and I could not find the strength to use it. From all the speech, only a slurred murmur came out, and no phrases came out. I lay and looked at that desk lamp and I was fine. After a while I wanted to get up and walk around. It worked out for me, but it shook me. I realized that this trip ended. Before that, I read that Salvia lasts about 10-15 minutes, and after another half an hour an outcast, and for each person is different. I lay down on another bed, and I was overwhelmed with very pleasant sensations, but my head ached slightly. In general, I liked everything very much, however, I did not dare to repeat the salvia intake for a long time, but now, I am ready, it remains only to purchase it)
So that the bushes do not age longer, they actively grow young foliage and new shoots, in spring the tops of adult shoots are cut by 1/3. This is especially true for sage, because for medicinal purposes, young succulent leaves are more suitable. Cropped salvia throws out more peduncles in summer, forms large flowers. To protect garden sage from freezing, before the onset of the first frosts, it is cut "to the stump."
In central Russia, care for garden salvia includes sheltering it for the winter:
- With the onset of frosts of 3-5 ° C, the trimmed bush is mulched with humus.
- Top with dry straw (foliage), covered with spruce branches and agrofibre.
- In winter, a snowdrift of 30–50 cm is poured over the shelter.
- The bushes are opened when a stable plus temperature is established.
How to grow salvia
Salvia care includes the same garden work as the care of any garden plant - watering, weeding, loosening the soil, fertilizing fertilizers. All these works need to be done as necessary. Water the soil when the land under Salvia dries well after the previous watering, and only in the evening, but do not pour too much water, because the plant does not tolerate stagnation of moisture in the roots. After some time after watering, loosen the soil and remove weeds, if any.
Top dressing from complex mineral fertilizers is applied at least twice during the summer: the first time they feed seedlings with a weak solution, and the second time during the formation of buds.
Perennial salvia It will cause you more trouble than a one-year or two-year (sown with seeds for the winter), because it also needs a shaping pruning, which will not allow the shoots to stretch and bare, stimulates tillering and growth of young shoots. When the perennial salvia blooms, remove the wilted flowers from the bush, and before the winter dormancy or at the beginning of the next growing season, cut the salvia: cut old lignified shoots so that only a few centimeters with buds and young herbs remain.
Pests and diseases of salvia
Salvia is so rarely affected by diseases that it makes no sense to talk about it. As for pests, sometimes the plant is affected by whiteflies, thrips, aphids or ticks, as well as slugs and snails that eat delicate salvia foliage.
Snails and slugs need to be removed mechanically: collect them by hand, put the bait in the form of pieces of slate or rags, under which the slugs will crawl, you can arrange in the area of the tank with beer or fruit juice, covering them with an improvised umbrella that protects the contents from rain and debris. The gastropod mollusks crawl to a pleasant smell for them, and you can collect a decent crop of these pests.
Insects will have to be fought with insecticides that correspond to each of the pests.
Salvia is easy to propagate by seed and vegetative means:
- The seeds. Landing in the open ground is carried out in May or October. Prepare grooves with a depth of 1-2 cm, leaving aisles of at least 50 cm, lay the seeds. As soon as sprouts with 2 leaves appear, the space between the rows weed from the weeds. The grown seedlings are thinned out, leaving 20 cm between future bushes. Seeds planted in the fall germinate in the spring.
- By dividing the bush. In the spring, an adult bush is dug up, divided into parts and transplanted to a new place. On the neck of the root of each delenka should be 1-2 growth buds. A separated bush with a strong root and several healthy shoots is immediately planted. In autumn, propagating salvia by dividing the bush is dangerous - immature delenki can freeze in winter.
- Layering. In the process of spring care for an adult bush, several shoots are left uncircumcised. They are attached to the ground, sprinkled with fertile soil or humus. Only the top of a branch with several leaves is left on the surface of the earth. Watering layering 2-3 times a week. By the autumn shoots will take root. Cut off from the mother bush and transplant to a permanent place rooted layering is better in the spring.
- Cuttings. Any part of the salvia shoot can be used for reproduction. Sliced cuttings 15 cm long are placed in water. To activate root formation, the growth inhibitor Kornevin is added to the liquid, according to the instructions for its use. Roots appear in 10-14 days.
Harvesting and harvesting Salvia officinalis
Salvia officinalis begins to be harvested when blossoming inflorescences. During this period, the largest amount of essential oil accumulates in plants. Cut the shoots at a height of 15 cm from the ground. So that the inflorescences do not crumble during drying, you need to cut the plant when the lower flowers have already blossomed, and the upper ones are still collected in buds.
A medicinal plant is harvested during the day in dry sunny weather. The leaves are torn off and dried in a ventilated room, spread out on the surface in one layer. The stems with inflorescences are connected in bunches, suspended with the top down. Autumn harvest begins in late September and lasts 2-3 weeks. By this time, the trimmed bushes are updated and bloom again.
To avoid self-seeding, you need to collect seeds from the bushes:
- Dried inflorescences are cut off, put them in a fabric bag and beat on it with a rolling pin.
- Remove the stems.
- Using a colander with large holes, sift the contents of the bag over the pelvis. Pericarp remains in the sieve, and the seeds fall into the dishes.
- Seeds are stored in tissue or paper bags until planted.
- Pericarp is filled with gauze sachets and used for flavoring linen.
Sage Diseases and Pests
Care for garden sage includes the protection and control of pests, plant diseases:
- Peronosporosis or downy mildew. The disease is caused by peronospore fungi. The disease often spreads to flowers from vegetable beds. Pathogens are activated during sudden changes in day and night temperatures. Affected leaves become covered with rusty spots, frown, curl with a tube and dry. Treatment - spraying with a solution of biofungicide like Fitosporin-M (5 g / 10 l of water + 20 g of liquid soap).
- Sclerotinia or white rot. A fungal disease affects the plant during waterlogging of the soil and thickening of the bushes. Affected shoots need to be torn out and burned. The remaining plants should be treated with a chemical fungicide such as Ordan, Oksikhom, guided by the instructions for use. A popular way of fighting - spraying with serum - is effective at the initial stage.
- Spider mite. The smallest insect eats the sap of the plant. Signs of damage - foliage and stems of the plant are covered with cobwebs. It is necessary to cut off the affected parts of the plant and burn. Spray the flower garden with the Kleschevin insecticide (2 ml / 1 liter of water). Repeat the procedure after 2 weeks.
- Darkling larvae. Worms are like wireworms. They feed on the roots of plants. If the salvia seedlings die, their roots are corroded, Diazinon (15 g per 10 sq. M) must be applied to the soil.
- Sage scoop - a small yellow-green butterfly. The danger to the plant is its caterpillars. With a small number of pests, they are collected manually, in case of mass damage, they are sprayed with Lepidocide (30 g per 10 liters of water). The treatment is repeated after 7-10 days.
- Sage weevil. Small bugs with a long "proboscis" and their larvae eat leaves, leaving many small holes. Treatment - spraying with Actellik insecticide (2 ml per 1 liter of water).
Growing Sage at Home
Planting and caring for sage, its propagation in room conditions do not differ much from cultivation in open ground. The transplantation is carried out by the transhipment method. Salvia grows well in a purchased universal mix. The culture has a long root, so you need to replace the pot every year with a large one.
Sage on the windowsill is able to live about 5 years with proper care:
- Planting seeds is carried out in early spring. Before sowing, their day is kept in moist cotton.
- Cuttings are harvested from the bush throughout the growing season.
- The best place for culture is the windowsill of the south or west window. The bush does not tolerate drafts. It is undesirable to rearrange the pot with the plant to a new place.
- Water the plant as the top layer of the earth dries by 3-5 cm.
- Weekly, the bush is sprayed with water from a spray bottle, bathed in the shower once a month.
- After flowering, the shoots are pruned, leaving 15 cm. This makes the bush lush.
- During flowering, once every 2 weeks, salvia is fed a complex fertilizer for flowering plants.
Salvia after flowering
Flowering salvia begins in June, and sometimes ends with autumn frosts - each species has a different way. Some of the salvia can bloom twice a year.
For example, forest salvia, if it is completely cut off after flowering, will bloom again in late summer, especially if it is fed.
But if the salvia has finally faded, spend the autumn pruning of the perennial salvia and mulch the plot, and especially the growth points with garden compost, so that the plant calmly survive the winter. Young salvia needs to be covered additionally with spruce branches or dry foliage.
Types and varieties of salvia
According to agrotechnical characteristics and biological features, scientists divide the types of salvia into three groups. The first includes representatives of the American subtropics, for obvious reasons grown in our climate as annuals. These species prefer moist soil and do not tolerate even light frosts. The first group includes:
Salvia sparkling (Salvia splendens)
Or salvia brilliant - from 20 to 80 cm high, densely leafy compact bushes, opposite leaves, whole, ovate, petiolate, dark green on top and light green on the bottom of the leaf plate. Large, irregularly shaped flowers with a double perianth are collected whisked together for 2-6 pieces in racemose inflorescences of 14-25 cm long. Both the calyx and corolla are most often bright red, but there are white, purple and pink. It blooms from June to autumn frosts.
Variety sparkling white salvia differs from fiery red in not so dense inflorescence and in that the cup looks creamy against the background of a white corolla.
Pink salvia differs in a shorter inflorescence than salvia red, and the corolla and calyx are pink in the same color, but the corolla has a velvety texture.
Violet sparkling salvia is a very catchy variety, as the deep-violet color of the flowers enhances their velvety, which is created by dense pubescence.
The most popular varieties of salvia sparkling: Fire Star, Red Arrows, Salvator, Sahara.
Salvia bright red (Salvia coccinea)
50-70 cm high, the stems are straight, densely pubescent and branching, petiolate, ovate, finely serrate on the edges, pubescent below, bare above. Loose inflorescences 15-30 cm long consist of whorled flowers with a scarlet-red nimbus and a long tube. This salvia blooms from July to frost. Varieties: “Lady in Red up to 40 cm high with bright red flowers, Sherry blossom - an early variety of the same height, but with pink flowers.
Predictor sage - a drug or a medicine?
Sage of the fortune tellers (Salvia divinorum) is one of the rarest representatives of the sage genus, which grows in the mountains of South and Central America, as well as in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. This plant is little known to the general public, however, in a certain circle of inhabitants, this exotic “fellow” of sage causes genuine interest. The fact is that the leaves of the salvia divinorum have a narcotic property and are capable of causing severe hallucinations.
In the modern world, the sage of fortune tellers is considered a drug, and its turnover is prosecuted. However, the data available to scientists suggest that the salvia divinorum could do a good job for all of humanity and help in the treatment of a variety of diseases. We will discuss this in more detail in this article.
Mealy Salvia (Salvia farinacea)
Long-flowering non-whimsical plant 60-90 cm tall, looking like a pyramidal bush. Petiole leaves, oblong-ovate, pubescent only along the veins, whole-marginal.Inflorescences on high peduncles reach a length of 15-20 cm and consist of 5-28 flowers up to 2 cm long. The corolla is usually dark blue, but sometimes white. This species blooms from mid-August to late autumn. Varieties: Anschuld (silver-white flowers), Strata (compact bush with blue flowers), Victoria (lush flowering variety with dark blue flowers).
The second group is represented by species of Mediterranean origin. They are more resistant to cold and drought tolerant. They grow best on loose soils and gratefully respond to mineral top dressing.
Salvia green (Salvia viridis)
Or salvia motley - in this species, only the horminum variety (var. Horminum) with brightly colored bracts is decorative. This is an annual plant 40-60 cm tall with numerous straight branching stems covered with a glandular fluff. Petiole leaves, oblong-elliptic, also pubescent. Simple inflorescences 18-30 cm long consist of false whorls with 4-6 flowers with a pink corolla, but the color of the bracts attracts the eye - juicy purple or bright pink. Varieties: White Swan (white salvia with pinkish or purple bracts), Oxford Blue with blue-purple bracts, Pink Sandy with pink bracts.
Externally, the sage of the predictors is practically no different from representatives of a kind. This is a small shrub plant with a strong root and a hollow stem, reaching more than a meter in height, has large leaves and white flowers with purple cups. This plant is water-loving, and therefore more common in well-moistened and drained soil.
The homeland of sage forecasters is considered to be the Mexican region of Oaxaca called Sierra Madre. Given that this variety of sage is not found in other regions of the planet, this plant might not have gained such wide popularity, remaining only in biology textbooks. If not for one feature.
Since time immemorial, the Masatecs - Indian tribes living in Mexico, used this plant in shamanistic rites. During spiritual sessions, shamans chewed leaves of the plant, smoked them or drank infusion prepared on the basis of sage, after which they entered into a trance. After that, they had the gift of foresight, and the ability to diagnose diseases appeared. According to the Indians, Salvia Divinorum - was the embodiment of the Virgin Mary. She “whispered” to the shamans valuable information about the future.
It is not surprising that the Indians worshiped this plant, using it not only for rituals, but also for the treatment of certain diseases. For example, in small doses, salvia divinorum was taken to combat diarrhea, headache and anemia, bloating and rheumatism.
Given the low prevalence of sage predictors, and the fact that the Indians tried to hide this sacred plant for them from prying eyes, the sage of the soothsayers was discovered only in 1939. The researcher, Basset Johnson, studying Native American shamanism, came across an interesting plant, with the help of which the shamans reached an altered state. He was the first to write this exotic plant in his writings.
Interested in Johnson’s information, ethnobiologist Gordon Wasson, together with chemist Albert Hoffman, went to Mexico. It is these scientists who own the discovery of a plant called sage predictors.
But the study of the composition of the plant and its effect on the body had to wait another 30 years. In the early 90s, a group of scientists led by Daniel Siebert discovered two psychoactive components in salvia divinorum - diterpenes salvinorin A and salvinorin B. These substances cause an altered state, accompanied by severe hallucinations that distort the perception of reality.
Sage fortune tellers as a drug
Mesateca Indians used salvia divinorum in various ways, including chewing leaves, smoking dried leaves, as well as squeezing salvia juice and using a sublingual extract diluted with water. Practice shows that the most powerful hallucinations occur when smoking dry leaves. The effects after taking this remedy appear almost instantly and last for 5 minutes (in rare cases, 10–20 minutes).
People who have experienced the effects of sage predictors on themselves, note that psychedelic experiences after using this tool are some of the most powerful, albeit rather short-lived. After taking this drug, a person can start to laugh very much and laugh uncontrollably. In hallucinations, he can "move" to the places of his childhood or any other places where he once visited or which he had never seen. He can feel himself in several places at the same time.
A drug addict who has used salvia has impaired coordination. You may feel as if it is being squeezed from all sides, carried away by a hurricane or pulled into an abyss by force majeure. In this state, a person can speak an incomprehensible language, repeat the same phrase for several minutes, or try to talk with animals.
A distinctive feature of trips caused by salvia is the ability to feel like any objects, for example, a tree, sofa or gears in a complex mechanism. At the same time, a person really feels how he “spins” the gear, trying not to disrupt the operation of the entire mechanism.
In some cases, after using the sage of the foretellers, surrealistic pictures and visions arise in the head of the addict, which they then describe as visions from the future. Perhaps it was precisely such hallucinations that served as the reason for calling salvia "the sage of the foretellers."
For their ability to induce hallucinations and visions, the salvia divinorum is often compared to LSD. However, the effects on the body of these narcotic substances are radically different. Salvia divinorum is a trans-neoclerodanic diterpen, which is not an alkaloid, and therefore does not affect opioid receptors, such as morphine or heroin. Moreover, unlike such well-known hallucinogens as mescaline or LSD, salvia does not affect serotonin receptors and does not cause a “high”, which drug addicts experience from taking these funds.
At the same time, experts call the predictor sage “the strongest among natural hallucinogens” and say that it is rather an “anti-drug”, after which, in principle, the desire to try “weed” disappears.
By the way, salvia differs from other drugs in that there is no physical dependence on the use of this psychedelic. At the same time, the psychological dependence is quite strong and appears after 1-2 weeks of taking salvia. In case of refusal of the drug, a person does not experience bodily withdrawal, but the psychological withdrawal is very strong.
In fairness, let’s say that over the short period of fame of this psychedelic drug, there have been practically no reports in the media about health hazards in people who used the sage of the predictors. Moreover, there were no reports of crimes or law enforcement by individuals who took Salvia. Nevertheless, given the severe hallucinations that this plant causes, from the beginning of the 90s the question of the legal status of Salvia nodivinorum began to be raised.
A particular resonance was caused by the suicide of an American teenager, Brett Chidester, who committed suicide after consuming sage forecasters.
After analyzing hundreds of cases of the use of this product, and studying the composition of sage predictors, scientists have concluded that salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic drug. Based on research, the sage of the predictors was added to the List of Narcotic Drugs to be Controlled in the Russian Federation. That is, the circulation of this product in our country is prohibited and prosecuted by law. In the same year, a ban on the collection and distribution of this narcotic substance was adopted by almost all European countries and some US states.
Harmful Sage Forecasters
Even taking into account the fact that the statistics practically do not know cases of harm to health and death from taking salvia, such negative outcomes cannot be ruled out. Being in an altered state, a person loses control over his consciousness, which means that he may well fall, having hit his head on a hard surface, step under the wheels of a car or fall out of a window. In addition, in the fight against invisible enemies such drug addicts are quite capable of grabbing a knife.
It will not be amiss to say about the negative effects of salvia on the brain. Regular use of this drug leads to the destruction of brain neurons, which causes memory problems. Moreover, epilepsy attacks in drug addicts who use salvia occur three times more often than in healthy people. Add to this the increased likelihood of developing schizophrenia, and you will understand how dangerous this plant is for people. But if you take the sage of the predictors in the form of smoking mixtures, a powerful blow will come in the pulmonary system, which will contribute to the development of bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis and even lung cancer.
Useful properties of salvia divinorum
The substances present in the sage of the predictors are used in industry for the production of latex, rubber and all kinds of solvents. As for the medicinal use of this drug, today in pharmacology there are enough drugs that can cope with headache, anemia or diarrhea. Do not use “weed” for the treatment of these diseases, because it is extremely dangerous.
Nevertheless, it cannot be said that salvinorin A and salvinorin B are poorly studied, and modern scientists should pay attention to these powerful diterpenes, which, if used correctly, can be of great help in treating a variety of ailments.
Dandelion Salvia (Salvia taraxacifolia)
This is a grassy appearance with a basal rosette of leaves. The stems are straight, not particularly branching, all parts of the plant produce a pleasant aroma. The leaves are pinnately dissected, irregularly serrate at the edges, bare from above and pubescent from the underside of the leaf plate. Simple inflorescences up to 28 cm long consist of whorls with several flowers with a pale pink corolla, greenish-green pharynx with purple specks.
The second group also includes salvia jurisiciiwhich is not of particular interest to gardeners.
The third group combines cold-resistant species. For the most part, these are salvia growing in the temperate climatic zone of the Old World, but the Salvia is Ethiopian. The species of the third group is characterized by abundant flowering from the second year of life. They are unpretentious, grow well in the shade and require shelter only in snowless winters.
Salvia nemorosa (Salvia nemorosa)
Or Salvia forest (Salvia sylvestris) - bushes up to 60 cm high with branched pubescent stems. The lower petiole leaves are the largest of the upper sessile. Inflorescences with several pairs of lateral branches consist of false whorls with 2-6 small flowers in each. Corolla is blue-violet. Large purple bracts attract the eye. It blooms from late June to early autumn. Varieties: purple-blue Mineht, dark lavender Plumeza, pink-purple Amethyst.
Adhesive Salvia (Salvia glutinosa)
Perfectly growing in our latitudes. This is a large plant up to 90 cm tall with numerous straight glandular-pubescent stems, large long-leaved ovate-triangular serrate leaves of yellowish-green hue. The flowers in the whorls are loose inflorescences, the corolla of the flowers is light yellow. It blooms from late summer to late autumn.
Salvia lush (Salvia x superba)
Up to 60 cm high, blooms for a long time with blue-violet spike-shaped inflorescences. Varieties: white salvia Snow Hill, dwarf salvia Blue Queen and Rose Queen, respectively, lavender blue and pink.
The third group also includes Salvia meadow (Salvia pratensis) and already mentioned Salvia Ethiopian (Salvia aethiopis).