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Poultry Aspergillosis: From Symptoms to Control Strategies

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Aspergillosis defined as any disease condition caused by one of the fungi of the genus Aspergillus. However, reference to avian aspergillosis usually refers to pulmonary aspergillosis. Therefore, synonyms such as mycotic pneumonia and brooding pneumonia. Despite the fact that the main goal of the pathogen is the pulmonary circulation, in addition to this, other manifestations of the disease occur in poultry.

Aspergillosis is an acute or chronic respiratory disease caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. In rare cases, peritoneal, visceral or systemic lesions may occur. It is accompanied by shortness of breath, tense and heavy breathing, often with wheezing and cyanosis.

In acute form, serous fibrinous pneumonia is observed. In the trachea and main bronchi, as a rule, a coagulated mass of fibrinous exudate is found.

Nodular form shows numerous grayish-white or yellowish dense nodes in the lungs. Susceptible to aspergillosis chickens, turkeys, waterfowl and many other species of domestic or wild birds.

Granulomas of aspergillosis on serous membranes: chest, abdominal air sacs and pleural membranes. Infections can occur inside or outside the incubator. Aspergillus fumigatus penetrates the shell and infects embryos. Eggs explode and a significant amount of spores is released that pollute the incubator and the environment. Disputes spread through the ventilation system, leading to serious outbreaks in chickens under 3 weeks of age. Outside the incubator, infection occurs by inhalation of numerous spores from contaminated feed litter or the environment. Overcrowding and high humidity are favorable conditions for outbreaks of aspergillosis.

Aspergillosis granulomas can sometimes be found in the brain when spores are transported through the bloodstream.

Characteristic signs and macroscopic lesions are very indicative of aspergillosis. They can also be confirmed by histological studies. In acute aspergillosis among inflammatory necrotic masses, spores are observed (arrow a), as well as hyphae (arrow b) of the fungus.
With the nodular form of aspergillosis, a characteristic granulomatous tissue structure is found.

PREVENTION AND CONTROL. Infection in young chickens and chickens caused by Aspergillus fumigatus can be controlled to some extent through sanitary measures in the hatchery.

Fungal microorganisms should not be allowed to appear in the litter or feed, and straw bales where fungi may be present should be avoided. This will prevent outbreaks of aspergillosis. Examination of the premises or materials used for feeding or bedding usually reveals the source of infection.

Places around feed and drinking water silos are areas of fungal growth. If a permanent fencing system is not used, it is recommended to change feeding and drinking places more often. In order to prevent turkeys from swallowing fungal microorganisms developing in such places, it is advisable to place containers for feed and drinking water on protected platforms raised above the ground. In those places where water stagnates after rain, it is recommended to make a drainage drain.

Daily cleaning and disinfection of feed tanks and drinking water will help prevent the spread of infection. In the case when there is no possibility of a frequent change of feeding places, it is necessary to spray the earth with chemical solutions. An aqueous solution of 1: 2000 can be added to drinking water to prevent the spread of infection during outbreaks. copper sulfate. However, this method is not so reliable, so it should not be used constantly. Diar and his colleagues managed to reduce the number of fungi in their litter and to reduce the mortality rate in turkeys due to aspergillosis by treating the litter nystatin and copper sulfate. Spraying the litter of oak shavings with thiabendazole solutions proved to be effective in reducing the number of fungal spores and reducing the number of pulmonary lesions from aspergillosis in turkeys that were on such a litter.

The most active antifungal agents werenystatin, amphotericin B, crystalline violet and brilliant green.

It is clear that proper ventilation of poultry locations reduces the number of harmful microorganisms in the air microflora. This suggests that such a procedure can be used as a preventive measure to control aspergillosis. Moreover, natural ventilation is better than forced. Nevertheless, a significant effect of this type of ventilation was not revealed as a result of a study to evaluate the productivity of turkeys. In this case, mortality, average daily increase, feed conversion, slaughter rejection and average weight of birds were taken into account.

Generally speaking, there are currently no effective treatments for avian aspergillosis. Although a number of drugs have been used to treat aspergillosis in mammals, they are not cost effective for poultry. Currently, the most preferred means of controlling aspergillosis is prevention. It usually involves eliminating a source of pathogens, such as proper collection and storage of eggs for incubation, as well as the treatment of litter and poultry houses with antifungal compounds. But despite precautionary measures and preventive measures, outbreaks of aspergillosis still occur sometimes in some rooms for keeping birds and at certain times of the year, especially in winter in closed houses. According to some reports, it has been used successfully to control aspergillosis in young hens. gamicinadded to drinking water. And for the treatment of birds of prey with clinical aspergillosis was successfully used miconazole. Chicken embryo infection was monitored using amphotericin B and phenylmercurioiodinaphthylmethane disulfonate. Subcutaneous dimethyldithiocarbamate has been shown to be effective against Aspergillus fumigatus infection in 5- and 6-week-old chickens. This drug significantly reduced the size of the lesions and the degree of isolation of microorganisms from the tissues of the treated infected birds.

Poultry aspergillosis

Dossier on the culprit of the headache of poultry breeders.

Mold mycosis is the result of the vital activity of fungi representing the genus Aspergillus. As a rule, the disease provokes the fungus A. Fumigatus.

Places (they are sources) of the pathogen development: wet walls of the chicken coop, equipment used for feeding and drinking, organic fertilizers, including litter, bedding, grain.

Tip: Before storing straw and hay in the house, make sure they are dry. The fact is that damp roughage and bedding are a factor contributing to the development of the fungus. In addition, dust rises from the dried rough feed into the air - a source of spores. How difficult the disease will be is determined by the number of spores in the respiratory system.

5-10 minutes boiling is detrimental to A. Fumigatus spores. With prolonged exposure, they are very sensitive to bleach, formalin and chloramine.

The temperature optimum for the enemy of poultry farmers is 19-36 degrees. Acceptable for the fungus natural substrates are vegetable crops, cereal grains, but the best are moist, heated coarse fodder (straw and hay) and grass.

Which bird does the fungus choose?

A. Fumigatus is picky - it affects many wild and all domestic birds. Among young animals and adults, an acute form of the disease predominates. Often broilers and laying hens suffer from chronic aspergillosis.

Symptomatology

In chickens aged four days, acute aspergillosis is accompanied by:

  • Large waste on the first or second day after infection,
  • damage to the respiratory system,
  • conjunctivitis,
  • cramps
  • diarrhea.

Ill young animals often drink and refuse to feed.

The chronic form of the disease manifests itself:

  • Poor appetite
  • thirst
  • depressed state
  • diarrhea (on the third or fourth day),
  • serous outflows from the nose,
  • protein deposits over the eyelids,
  • corneal deformity.

Problematic laying hens are sometimes lame and upset by the low rates of egg productivity (egg production decreases by about 15%).

For fun: geese with Aspergillosis rapidly weaken and lose weight.

Note of a bird pathologist.

The acute course of aspergillosis is the cause of the following internal pathologies:

  • Lungs with hemorrhagic lesions,
  • lung cavity with nodules, the diameter of which is 1-3 mm.

Chronic illness leads to the formation of:

  • Miliary nodules or dense caseous masses (these are the same nodules, but united) in the lungs,
  • caseous clot (5 mm) on airbags,
  • grayish yellow exudate in the lungs,
  • hemorrhagic inflammation in the small intestine.

Results of a microscopic analysis of a lung section confirming the disease:

  • Focal pneumonia,
  • tuberculous nodules
  • numerous necrotic processes.
  • mucus, fibrin, nuclear segments, white blood cells, mycelium, located in the branches of the bronchial "tree".

In the process of diagnosis, epizootological data are taken into account. A microbiological analysis is also carried out, the results of clinical trials and internal changes are studied.

Aspergillosis Chickens Treatment

In the fight against aspergillosis, the drug "Nystatin" (a remedy for fungi related to the polyene series) was widely used. Dosage: adults - 15-20 mg, young animals - 3-4 mg. Geese and turkeys are treated with a similar drug, but at a double dose.

Often the bird is treated with potassium iodide. Dosage - 0.16-0.2 mg / goal.

In addition, experts recommend drinking water to be replaced with a solution of copper sulfate.

Preventive actions

To exclude the likelihood of a repeated outbreak of the disease, it is necessary:

  • Use high-quality, high-grade feed in a balanced diet. It is important to comply with feeding standards and the supply of chickens with all the nutrients, taking into account age, weight, level of productivity, breed, physiological condition ...,
  • comply with storage rules for feed and bedding material,
  • adhere to the schedule of cleaning, disinfection of structural elements of the house, feeders, drinking bowls, perches, nests ...,
  • disinfect eggs selected for incubation.

Now you know how to treat aspergillosis of chickens and other poultry. We hope that this misfortune will bypass your house.

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Disease characteristics

Aspergillosis occurs at any time of the year. More often it develops in chickens whose immunity is weakened by poor conditions. For a healthy, strong bird, even a significant dose of the spore of the fungus will be harmless.

Also, the disease often affects young animals, especially broiler chickens and egg crosses. They can become infected even in the hatchery during withdrawal, if aspergillus spores are present in the air of the hatchers.

The fungus can infect hatching eggs under poor conditions of keeping the parent herd. In this case, aspergillus penetrates through the pores of the shell, develops in the protein and yolk, which leads to the death of the embryos. Such eggs in the hatcher are a source of infection and hatch the young hatched.

In the poultry house, the source of aspergillosis is more often a raw, moldy litter of plant origin (usually straw).

In chickens note:

  • rapid and labored breathing,
  • a characteristic symptom is that the chicken stretches its neck up and swallows air,
  • lethargy,
  • growth lag.

The death of young animals in acute course can reach 50-100%. Coughing, discharge from the eyes, and diarrhea are sometimes observed.

In adult laying hens, aspergillosis usually proceeds in a chronic form.

Features of the course in adults

  • exhaustion
  • embryo death,
  • cessation of egg production,
  • cough, shortness of breath, shortness of breath,
  • diarrhea,
  • outflow from the eyes and nasal openings.

The death of chickens occurs with paralysis.

Diagnosis of an experienced farmer is straightforward. When opening the corpses of broilers, aspergillus colonies are found in the lungs and air sacs. They look like small yellowish grains crumbling under scissors. At the opening of the incubation eggs of the hens, the colonies of the fungus on the shell shells are clearly visible in the form of spots from dark green to black.

To confirm the diagnosis, the material is sent to the laboratory. There they sow on special media. But treatment is usually started before the final diagnosis is made, since aspergillus grows slowly on nutrient media and the laboratory gives the result only after 10-14 days.

Treatment

Aspergillus is sensitive to the effects of iodine and antibiotic antifungal agents. It is widely used in the treatment and prevention of the disease. In case of suspicion of aspergillosis, aerosol treatments of the bird must be carried out indoors, since the main route of infection is through the air. Use one of the following drugs.

    Iodine Chloride
    Processing is carried out by sublimation with aluminum powder or wire. To do this, take monochloride iodine at the rate of 0.5 ml per one cubic meter. volume of the room. If the house has poor sealing, the dosage is doubled.
    The liquid is poured into plastic or galvanized containers and aluminum powder (1:30) or wire (1:20) is added there. Sublimation of iodine and hydrochloric acid vapor occurs. Exposure from 20 to 40 minutes. Then the house is aired. Processing is carried out in courses of 3 days after 3 until the disappearance of aspergillosis in chickens.

In the photo - monochloride iodine in the packaging of 11 liters produced by the Troitsk iodine plant. Great for use in chicken coops.

Potassium iodide is drunk with water at the rate of 0.15-0.3 mg per head. A good effect is the feeding of copper sulfate in a dilution of 1: 2000 for 4-5 days.

Additionally, antibiotics of antifungal action can be given to the bird, but the effect of them often does not justify the costs. The following drugs are used:

  • nystatin in a dose of 400 thousand units. per 1 kg of live weight for 7-10 days with food,
  • amphotericin B
  • 5-florocytosine,
  • mycoplasol
  • Intraconazole

Antibiotics are best used individually, using injection forms of drugs.

You can also solder the tincture of iodine diluted in the back at the rate of 10 ml of tincture per 10 liters of backfill.

It should be noted that in advanced cases, treatment does not give results. The exhausted bird is rejected. Carcasses and internal organs are destroyed because aspergillus is resistant to digestion and other disinfection effects.When handling a sick bird, postmortem autopsy, working with carcasses of chickens, safety precautions should be observed so as not to become infected - wear a protective mask, use protective clothing and gloves.

Aspergillosis Prevention Measures

Prevention of aspergillosis is to comply with zootechnical standards:

  • prevent crowding,
  • provide good ventilation
  • take measures to reduce the dustiness of the room,
  • do not use a stubbed litter,
  • do not give moldy feed.

One of the simplest and most effective preventive measures is compliance with livestock density standards when keeping chickens.

For the purpose of prevention, the litter before being populated is treated with a 2-3% solution of copper sulfate at the rate of 10 ml per sq. M. It is also possible to carry out aerosol disinfection in the absence of a bird with iodine monochloride at a rate of 2 ml per m3.

In the process of growing, periodic inhalations of the bird with iodine monochloride are carried out at a rate of 0.5 ml per m3. Such treatments are also desirable when introducing new individuals into the herd.

Equipping the herd with daily chickens from successful incubators is of great importance. For the prevention of aspergillosis in day-old young animals, attention is paid to the sanitary and hygienic conditions of the parent flock hens, including nest equipment, frequent egg collection, and preventive aerosol treatment of hatching eggs no later than 2 hours after laying.

An article on the treatment and prevention of aspergillosis (mildew in the lungs of a bird)

Aspergillosis as an acute or chronic disease manifests itself in poultry and is characterized by fibrinous nodular lesions of the respiratory system and serous integument. A person is also susceptible to aspergillosis. This article will help poultry owners prevent infection and cure aspergillosis.

Causes of Aspergillosis

The disease is caused by toxic fungi (the genus Aspergillus-A.fumigatus, A.flavus, A. nigen, A. nidulans, A. album, etc.) - aspergillus. They live in soil, manure, contaminated water, from where they fall into feed or bedding, affecting them with mold. Aspergillus spores are resistant to physical and chemical effects. In laboratory conditions, the fungus remains viable for up to 5 years. When heated by dry heat to 120 ° C, it dies after an hour, when boiled - after 5 minutes. However, in feed, aspergillus resistance increases as the fungal mycelium grows into the grain. Such feeds are disinfected at a temperature of + 160–180 ° С for 10 minutes.

Dampness, dirt, lack of good ventilation in the room, poor feeding and crowded bird keeping - all this contributes to the reproduction of the mushroom. Grain waste feed contaminated with aspergillus is especially dangerous. Usually this occurs when the grain is stored improperly (humidity above 15%).

Disinfectants used in the form of a 2-3% alkaline formaldehyde solution and a clarified bleach solution containing 2-3% active chlorine kill aspergillus spores after 1-3 hours. Antibiotics do not have a destructive effect on it.

Under natural conditions, young animals are most sensitive to aspergillosis and aspergillotoxicosis - chickens, ducklings, turkey poults. The infection can spread through incubators, where aspergillus spores get into the eggs. Therefore, often the disease affects young animals from the first days of life, especially chickens 7-20 days of age. The death of young animals in an acute outbreak can reach 46–90%.

Aspergillosis of birds: description, symptoms, treatment and prevention

Aspergillosis is an infectious disease caused by Aspergillius fungi. This ailment affects not only birds, but also farm animals. To date, two forms of this ailment are known - acute and chronic. After reading this article, you will understand whether it is possible to eat the meat of birds suffering from aspergillosis.

Brief historical background

For the first time, mold fungi were found in the bronchi and lungs of birds as early as 1815. They were found by the German scientist A. Meyer. Forty years later, in 1855, they were identified by another scientist, Fresenius, who studied the respiratory system of birds. It was he who gave the name to this disease.

Over time, it was found that this infection affects not only birds, but also many mammals. This is one of the most common mold fungal infections officially registered in most world countries. The disease causes significant economic damage to poultry farms, as more than half of the young livestock die from it.

How does infection happen?

Most often, bird aspergillosis occurs due to the fungus Aspergillus flavus, but it also happens that other pathogenic microorganisms provoke it. It has been established that the causative agent of the disease is found in reproductive material, feed grain and soil. Fungi are resistant to high temperatures, so they actively multiply and develop even at 45 degrees. Some varieties of Aspergillus are not afraid of chemicals and disinfectant fluids.

In most cases, infection occurs by aerogenous route. As a rule, individuals are infected, but sometimes the disease becomes widespread. Outbreaks of aspergillosis occur solely in the presence of a sufficient number of pathogenic microorganisms. The source of infection is most often the infected litter in the chicken coop.

Another reason is a violation of resistance due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs, improperly prepared diet or stress. Also, infection can occur during contact with infected individuals.

How does aspergillosis proceed?

Symptoms in birds vary by age. The disease can occur in acute or chronic form. The first is commonly found in chickens under the age of thirty days. The first symptoms appear three days after infection. Sometimes this period decreases to one day or increases to ten.

Chickens infected with fungal spores show growth retardation, shortness of breath and rapid breathing. They become lethargic. Aspergillosis of birds can be recognized by one characteristic feature. Infected individuals begin to stretch their necks and swallow air. In the acute course, at least half of the infected young animals die. In some cases, they develop diarrhea, coughing and discharge from the eyes.

Symptoms of Aspergillosis in Adults

Laying hens usually develop a chronic form. The course of the disease is somewhat different from what is observed in a young livestock. In adult birds, the following are noted:

  • Outflows from the nose and eyes.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Shortness of breath, shortness of breath and coughing.
  • The death of embryos.
  • Exhaustion.

Hens cease to rush. Some individuals have lethal paralysis.

Bird Aspergillosis: Diagnosis

An experienced farmer recognizes this disease without any problems. To confirm the diagnosis, the corpses of dead birds are sent for autopsy. As a rule, whole colonies of microorganisms are found in their air sacs and lungs, in appearance resembling small yellowish grains crumbling under scissors. In the process of opening incubation eggs of laying hens, dark green or black spots are clearly visible on their shell-like shells.

In the future, the resulting biomaterial collected using certain antiseptics is sent for laboratory research. Specialists sow on special environments. As a rule, agar based on Chapek's solution or dextrose is used for these purposes. Since it takes at least ten days to get the final result, treatment is started before the final diagnosis is made. The rather low efficiency of serological tests is associated with the uncharacteristic nature of antigens.

Healing methods

Farmers who realize that their livestock has detected bird aspergillosis, the treatment of which is reduced to the destruction of the causative agent of the disease, should immediately begin to act. These microorganisms are sensitive to iodine-containing drugs and antibiotics of the antifungal spectrum. This feature must be used not only for medical, but also for preventive purposes.

At the slightest suspicion of bird aspergillosis, broiler treatment should begin with mandatory aerosol treatment of the stock. It is advisable to do this indoors. Affected individuals are watered with potassium iodide per 0.15 milligrams per head. Copper sulfate, diluted in a ratio of 1: 2000, proved to be pretty good. Bird should be fed with this liquid for five days.

Additionally, antibiotics of the antifungal spectrum can be given to chickens. It should be noted that the effectiveness of such drugs usually does not justify their cost. You can use medicines such as Intraconazole or Mycoplasol. It is advisable to select antibiotics individually.

Suitable aerosol preparations

In the room where individuals live who have been diagnosed with bird aspergillosis, it is necessary to spray special agents that prevent the further spread of pathogens. For these purposes, you can use monochloride iodine. In this case, the processing is carried out by wire or sublimation with aluminum powder. 0.5 milliliters of the drug is needed per cubic meter of house volume. With poor sealing of the room, it is advisable to double the dosage. Half an hour after treatment, the chicken coop is thoroughly ventilated.

Chloroskipidar proved to be quite good. Processing is carried out by sublimation. For one cubic meter, 0.2 milliliters of turpentine and bleach are required. You can also spray iodotriethylene glycol indoors. Such processing is carried out for five consecutive days. After a 48-hour break, you need to repeat it.

Preventative measures

For prevention, a special vaccine can be used. To reduce the number of microorganisms, it is necessary to systematically ventilate the house. It is advisable that the room intended for keeping chickens have natural ventilation.

The basis of the diet of poultry should be high-quality feed, prepared in full accordance with generally accepted standards. For their storage, it is recommended to use dry enclosed spaces. To avoid the rapid development of microorganisms that provoke bird aspergillosis, you should get rid of dampness in the chicken coop. Unfinished feed is recommended to be disposed of by burning.

Outbreak Activities

If, in spite of all the preventive measures taken, an infection of the livestock has occurred in the poultry farm, a whole range of actions must be taken aimed at stopping the disease.

First of all, it is necessary to identify all sources of infection and exclude all doubtful feeds from the bird's diet. Individuals who have already begun paralysis should be destroyed. After this, it is necessary to disinfect the house in the presence of feathered inhabitants. You also need to get rid of all litter and litter in a timely manner. Such a competent approach will significantly reduce livestock mortality or even avoid initiation.

What is bird aspergillosis: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Aspergillosis is an infectious disease caused by Aspergillus fungi, which affects the serous membranes and the respiratory system. Such a disease can occur in any pet.

As a rule, one of two forms of the disease occurs in poultry: Sharp. Such aspergillosis is characterized by strong outbreaks in young animals.

At the same time, morbidity and mortality are at a high level. Chronic. It is usually observed in adult breeding individuals.

It can also be whole houses and individual birds from an adult flock. The disease becomes chronic quite rarely. This happens when birds live in a confined space.

What is aspergillosis in birds?

Aspergillosis affects both domestic and wild birds. Accordingly, all individuals should be considered as potential carriers of infection.

Aspergillus fungi, due to which this disease occurs, were found in poultry at the beginning of the 19th century.

Most often, aspergillosis affects black ducks, swans, jays, turkeys and chickens. Under natural conditions, young animals are considered the most sensitive to the pathogen.

For the first time, mold fungi were found in the respiratory system of birds in 1815.

It was A. Meyer in Germany who found Aspergillus in the bronchi and feathery lungs.

Later, in 1855, G. Fresenius in the course of research revealed a fungus in the respiratory system of bustards.

These were air bags and lungs. The scientist called the find Aspergillusfumigatus. The disease itself began to be called aspergillosis.

Over time, it became clear that such an infection occurs in many mammals and even in humans. This is the most common mold mycosis, which is registered in many countries of the world.

Causative agents of the disease

In poultry, aspergillosis occurs due to Apergillusflavus and fumigatus.

Sometimes it can be some other microorganisms. It is known that such fungi are most often found in soil, fodder grain and reproductive matter.

Mushrooms are not afraid of temperature effects. They actively develop even at 45 ° C. Some types of Aspegillus are resistant to chemicals, including disinfectant fluids.

Infection occurs by aerogenous and alimentary route. Most often, individuals become ill, although aspergillosis sometimes becomes more widespread.

Its outbreak occurs only in the presence of a certain number of microorganisms. In this case, usually the source of the disease is the infected litter in the house.

Also, a resistance disorder caused by stress, an improper diet, or the use of immunosuppressive drugs can be a cause.

Sick animals and birds are another source of infection, because their secretions infect indoor equipment and feed.

Course and symptoms

Poultry most often becomes infected by an alimentary route, that is, mushrooms enter the body along with the food in which they are contained.

Less commonly, birds become sick when inhaled spores. The maximum susceptibility of chickens is observed at the incubation stage. So, a jelly-like suspension with Aspergillusfumigatus can get on the egg surface.

The main symptoms are:

  • dyspnea,
  • rapid breathing
  • labored breathing.

In advanced cases, wheezing may be heard. The infected birds have no appetite, they are exhausted and sleepy. When infected with some types of microorganisms, a loss of balance, as well as torticollis, can be observed.

Depending on the age of the bird, the disease can have an acute, subacute or chronic form. The incubation period usually lasts 3-10 days.

In the acute course, the bird sharply becomes inactive and almost completely refuses to feed. She has ruffled feathers and lowered wings.

Over time, an individual develops shortness of breath and discharge from the nasal cavity. The acute form usually lasts from 1 to 4 days, with a mortality rate of 80-100%.

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The subacute form most often lasts a week, a little less often - 12 days. Difficult frequent breathing in a sick bird, and the individual extends its head and opens its beak wide.

Since air sacs are often affected during aspergillosis, whistling and wheezing are heard during inspiration. Lack of appetite, severe thirst and diarrhea were later noted. Birds usually die of paralysis.

Diagnostics

A variety of laboratory tests are needed to make a diagnosis. Most often, the diagnosis is carried out after the death of the bird. All samples must be collected using certain antiseptics.

The resulting material is seeded on an appropriate nutrient medium. Usually this is agar based on dextrose or Chapek's solution.

Serological tests are not particularly valuable. This is due to the uncharacteristic nature of antigens.

When the diagnosis is confirmed in a sick bird, treatment with nystatin in the form of an aerosol is carried out.

Usually this procedure takes 15 minutes and is performed 2 times a day. In addition, as a drink you need to give a mixture of 60 ml of water and 150 mg of potassium iodide. Particular attention should be paid to diet and conditions.

Another treatment option involves drinking nystatin at a rate of 350 units per liter of water and aerosol treatment for 5 days.

For 1 m3, 10 ml of 1% iodine solution will suffice. A good result is provided by spraying iodine monochloride or 1% Berenil solution.

The room in which the sick individual was kept is necessary disinfect with sodium hydroxide solution 1% or alkaline formaldehyde solution of 2-3%.

For the rehabilitation of equipment and the entire house, it is worth choosing Virkon-S. After this treatment, it is recommended that the room be whitewashed with slaked lime suspension of 10-20%.

Prevention

As a preventative measure, clean and disinfect containers designed for drinking water and feed.

To prevent the infection from spreading during an outbreak of aspergillosis, it is necessary to add a solution of copper sulfate to the water for birds in a ratio of 1: 2000.

However, this method cannot be considered the most reliable. Experts do not recommend using it too often.

As a prophylaxis, vaccines based on Aspergillusfumigatus are allowed. To reduce the number of microorganisms, the room should be regularly ventilated. For this purpose, natural ventilation is best suited.

If an outbreak of the disease still occurs in the poultry farm, a whole set of activities:

  • identification of all sources of infection,
  • excluding suspicious feeds from the diet,
  • slaughter of sick birds that have already started paralysis,
  • disinfection of premises in the presence of birds,
  • timely destruction of litter and all litter.

Thanks to such a competent approach, bird mortality can be reduced or infection can be completely avoided.

Aspergillosis in agricultural birds

The disease occurs among agricultural, ornamental and wild birds. The most susceptible turkeys and chickens. With mass diseases, the waste can be 90%. In adult birds, the disease proceeds permanently. This article informs poultry farmers about the causes of aspergillosis, treatment options, and infection prevention measures.

The disease appears where the conditions of keeping the bird, as well as the storage of feed, are violated. Crowding, high humidity, the use of litter infected with micromycetes, its irregular change helps to reduce the body's defenses and multiply pathological fungi.

Aspergillus is considered to be the causative agent of the disease, but often, the prerequisites for its reproduction are created by other conditionally pathogenic unicellular.

Infection occurs when eaten seeded feed, contact with infected litter, inhalation of pathogen spores that contaminate the floor and walls of poultry facilities.

The fungus is able to penetrate the shell into the egg, infect embryos, causing their death or hatching of infected chicks. Aspergillus is not transmitted by direct contact, infection occurs after the development of the microorganism on a nutrient substrate and the formation of spores.

The ailment proceeds in a manifest or permanent form. An acute process occurs in chicks younger than 4 weeks old and is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • slow growth
  • rapid breathing
  • chicks craning their neck, swallowing air,
  • cough,
  • diarrhea,
  • conjunctivitis,
  • the formation of aspergillus nodules on the cheeks and eyelids,
  • paresis, paralysis.

In goslings, mucus with gray flakes with blood is released from the nose. They lay their heads on the floor, stop moving, die.

The chronic course is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • nasal and ocular discharge,
  • dyspnea,
  • cough,
  • exhaustion
  • drop in productivity.
  • high embryonic mortality in hatcheries.

Pathological picture

When examining the fallen chicks, the following changes are found:

  • The corpses are exhausted, rigor mortis is expressed.
  • The nostrils are glued together.
  • In the lungs, air sacs, on serous membranes, characteristic yellowish nodules are found - aspergillus colonies.
  • The intestines are hyperemic.
  • The liver is enlarged.
  • Black or green spots are found in the hatching egg.

Systemic mycoses of birds. Aspergillosis

This article highlights common questions often encountered by bird owners about aspergillosis. Further, there will be separate articles on the diagnosis of aspergillosis in birds and the treatment of birds for aspergillosis.

IN. How do birds get infected with aspergillosis?

ABOUT. Spores of pathogenic fungi are constantly in the air of the premises. These organisms are able to develop on a wide variety of substrates - on food, on plants, on building materials (wood, plastic, concrete), etc. The less often the room is ventilated, the higher the concentration of fungi. Those. the bird located in the room is constantly in contact with pathogens of fungal infections.

The presence of hinged panels and ceilings, incorrect floor design in the room, etc. - All this leads to the fact that in the space between the wall, floor, ceiling and external panels, conditions favorable for the development of molds are created. This leads to a significant increase in the number of spores of fungi in the air inhaled by the bird.

IN. What factors increase the bird's susceptibility to aspergillosis?
ABOUT. To increase the susceptibility of the bird's organism to aspergillosis, everything leads to a decrease in the intensity of respiration of the bird. Associated factors are the causes that inhibit the body's defenses:

poor bird diet,
lack of natural or adequate artificial lighting,
decreased bird mobility,
inadequate social environment to which belongs stress from communicating with people, pets, other birds.

IN. Can an aspergillosis-infected bird infect other birds or humans?
ABOUT. Man and other birds cannot become infected with aspergillosis from a sick bird. This is an individual infection. But if there is a flock of birds in the house, the virulence of the fungus for birds increases, because the fungus adapts, developing inside the bird, and, being released into the environment, develops faster in the body of new birds.

IN. At what age is bird infection with aspergillosis possible?
ABOUT. Aspergillosis infection is possible at any age of the bird, starting with development in the egg.

IN. How long does bird aspergillosis develop before the first signs of the disease appear?
ABOUT. Aspergillosis, like mycobacteriosis, can develop for years before signs of infection are noticed.

IN. How long can a bird survive with an infection?
ABOUT. Aspergillosis is acute - from it a bird can die in a few days, and also chronic - it can develop for years.

In this video, the main air sacs of the bird are clearly visible.

IN. What is the likelihood that a poultry with a disability (non-flying) kept in an apartment can catch a fungus?
ABOUT. For non-flying birds, the likelihood of developing an infection is very high. If the bird can’t fly, then it should be able to walk, jump and ride a lot - at the same time, air bags are also ventilated.

IN. Or maybe there are some preventive measures for a disabled eared owl?
ABOUT. A lot of outdoor games, fresh varied food - a minimum of frozen. There are many branches of trees with foliage and needles - they secrete volatile, destructive for fungi (but you need to change the branches often, at least once a week).

IN. Do air ionizers with UV (and ion lamps) in the apartment and rooms reduce the risk of poultry disease?
ABOUT. Reduce, as they reduce the number of viable spores of fungi in the room. But they do not completely exclude such a possibility.

IN. Will flying training with birds prevent indoor airing? Does the risk of morbidity decrease?
ABOUT. Of course prevented. During active flights - the drafts and low temperatures are not afraid of birds.

IN. Sometimes a bird that does not fly, holding its beak on its cage, flaps its wings. This imitation is not considered a flight for all internal processes of the bird?
ABOUT. This is a warm-up; it does not replace a full-fledged flight. Although in itself it is very important for the body of the bird.

IN. How to avoid poultry infection with aspergillosis?
ABOUT. In order to avoid the development of aspergillosis in birds, it is necessary:

Provide the bird with adequate movement - for this the bird needs to fly a lot.
Provide the bird with an adequate diet - for this it is necessary to accustom the bird to new forages for it and to take into account the natural feeding behavior of birds.
Provide the bird with an adequate environment, which includes:

adaptation of the premises where the bird is kept - arrangement of game stands, additives,
providing the bird with natural or adequate artificial lighting using specialized lamps for birds,
elimination excess itemshindering the natural air exchange in the room,
eliminating stress factors for poultry - Inappropriate behavior of people, other pets.

General Provisions

1.1. The instruction establishes the procedure for the implementation of preventive measures to prevent the disease of poultry in farms of various forms of ownership. The procedure for on-farm use or further sale of eggs, meat products obtained from slaughter of sick poultry is mandatory for private and state poultry farms or farms.

1.2. Aspergillosis of birds (pneumomycosis, pneumonia, mold mycosis) is an infectious disease, it usually affects the respiratory system and less often the serous membranes of other organs, namely the liver, intestines, spleen, kidneys, central nervous system and air cavities of the tubular bones.

1.3. The causative agent of the disease are mold fungi of the genus Aspergillus, mainly Asp. fumigatus, which are very common in nature. Mushrooms form aflatoxins and develop on damp walls, feeders, feeds, litter, and manure.

The possibility of germination of the mycelium of the fungus in the grain, which leads to its infection, is not ruled out. When storing wet feed, straw, hay, their possible warming, which contributes to the development and reproduction of mushrooms, after drying, the dust completely consists of spores of mushrooms.

When inhaled spores, the body becomes infected, which causes diseases. Aspergillus spores are quite resistant to physical and chemical factors. Boiling for ten, fifteen minutes, inactivates the spores of the fungus. From chemicals to Asp. fumigatus bleach, formalin, phenol, chloramine, caustic soda act, but in high concentrations and prolonged exposure.

1.4. Aspergillosis of birds is spreading among domestic, ornamental and wild birds. Young animals are most sensitive to the disease, especially turkey poultry, chickens, the disease of which is acute, often takes the form of enzootia, accompanied by a significant departure to 45-90%.

In an adult bird, including waterfowl, chronic course of the disease occurs, as a rule this is accompanied by a slight departure. The occurrence of the disease contributes to the violation of the conditions of poultry (high density, high humidity in the room, and the like).

On farms, bird aspergillosis occurs as a result of the use of poor-quality feed and bedding (straw) infected with Asp. fumigatus. Grain affected by spores of the fungus also causes disease. Outbreaks of aspergillosis are also noted with incubation of incubators.

With an outbreak of aspergillosis, attention is paid to hatching eggs and embryos affected by the fungus. The causative agent of aspergillosis penetrates the pores of the shell and infects embryos.

Aspergillosis in Chickens

1.5. Typically, the incubation period lasts from three to ten days. Typical symptoms of the disease: cough, conjunctivitis, cramps and diarrhea. Serous or foamy fluid may leak from the beak and nasal openings. Breathing is quickened, difficult, accompanied by wheezing, the beak is open, the bird extends its neck to facilitate breathing.

A sick bird becomes depressed, lethargic, drowsy, and inactive. When the air sacs are affected, exhalation is accompanied by characteristic wheezing and whistling; symptoms of difficulty breathing are noted.

In turkeys and chickens, signs of meningoencephalitis may be characteristic signs. The goslings observe lethargy, shortness of breath, progressive weight loss, the bird lays its head on the floor, lies, not moving, and subsequently dies.

With an outbreak of aspergillosis, 2-4-day-old goslings may have discharge from the nasal openings mixed with gray flakes, sometimes with blood. Rigor mortis is quite pronounced, corpses are exhausted. The nasal openings are glued together, when pressed, a grayish mucous mass is released from them.

When the lungs are affected, characteristic small aspergillus nodules are not often found, they reach the size of a pea of ​​a whitish, grayish or yellowish color, soft, elastic or cartilaginous consistency, they are homogeneous-curdled in the section.

In the acute course of aspergillosis, local or diffuse pneumonia is observed without the formation of nodules, and the lung tissue is hepatized.

In case of damage to the abdominal or thoracic air sacs, disk-like or lamellar layers of 2-5 mm thickness are found on their membrane.

Such foci can be observed on the serous membranes of the chest and abdominal cavities, as well as on the serous membrane of the intestine. Sometimes a significant amount of reddish turbid fluid appears in the abdominal cavity.

There are changes in the gastrointestinal tract from minor hyperemia to the hemorrhagic inflammatory process, these phenomena are especially clearly expressed in the duodenum. Stagnation is noted in the liver.

Bird Aspergillosis and Detection Activities

3.1. The poultry house (department, farm, household), where the bird disease for aspergillosis is registered, is declared dysfunctional in the established manner and quarantine restrictions are introduced under which the source of the pathogen is established.

The farm is prohibited:

  • the movement of poultry, equipment, feed between poultry houses (departments) within the farm,
  • dysfunctional poultry houses are assigned separate service personnel,
  • export of hatching eggs and birds to other farms for incubation and picking herds.

3.2. It is allowed in poultry farming unsuccessful for aspergillosis of birds:

  • incubation of eggs obtained from a bird of a prosperous house, provided that they are used to reproduce the herd within the given farm,
  • slaughter the infected bird in a specialized slaughterhouse, send the rest of the conditionally healthy livestock to meat processing enterprises,
  • expert assessment of poultry carcasses in accordance with the Rules for slaughter veterinary inspection of animals and sanitary-veterinary examination of meat and meat products.

3.3.If the situation is complicated by the order of the chief state inspector of veterinary medicine of the region, the region of consent of the head (owner) of the poultry farm, the bird is sent to slaughter, without waiting for the end of its life.

3.4. They improve the sanitary and hygienic conditions of keeping and feeding the bird, paying attention to providing the bird with vitamins, including groups “A”, “C”, “E”. Foods suspected of being infected with fungal spores are excluded from the diet until laboratory results are obtained. If the cause of the disease is moldy feed or bedding, they are removed and destroyed.

3.5. The feed affected by the mushrooms is treated with ammonia water, followed by heating them to a temperature of 180-2000 degrees Celsius or steamed for 30-60 minutes. at a temperature of 1000 degrees. C. Inventory is washed with 5% formaldehyde solution or 2% sodium hydroxide solution.

3.6. For therapeutic purposes, iodine preparations, antifungal antibiotics are used in accordance with the instructions (instructions) for their use, registered in the Russian Federation.

3.7. In hatcheries, incubation waste is destroyed (incinerated). Disinfection of the premises of the hatchery and incubation cabinets with fungicidal preparations is carried out in accordance with the recommendations (instructions) for their use.

3.8. In a dysfunctional economy, a technological break is made and hatchery sanitation is carried out (mechanical cleaning and washing of hatcheries with subsequent disinfection).

3.9. Premises of houses where registered aspergillosis is subject to mandatory treatment, which includes:

  • complete release of the premises from the bird,
  • irrigation of indoor air and floor with fungicidal disinfectants to prevent dust and spores Asp. fumigatus into the air,
  • removal of litter, residues of fluff, feather, feed,
  • mechanical cleaning and washing of walls, ceilings, floors, equipment, supplies with hot water 70-800º C,
  • disinfection with drugs that have a fungicidal effect in accordance with the instructions (instructions) for their use and registered in the prescribed manner in the Russian Federation,
  • flashing walls, ceiling,
  • rinsing after disinfection of drinking bowls, feeders, wiping equipment, washing and additional disinfection of the floor,
  • carrying out final disinfection.

3.9.1. Hatchery eggs are disinfected three times with formaldehyde vapor. The first time no later than 1.5 hours after the demolition of the house in the descamer, the second time before laying in the setter and the third time the hatchery eggs are disinfected after being transferred to hatchers.

3.9.2. During quarantine restrictions, the air in the hatchery is daily disinfected for 5-6 days in a row with a break of 1-2 days. For hatchery disinfection, fungicidal disinfectants are used in accordance with the instructions (instructions) for their use, which are registered in the Russian Federation.

3.9.3. Remediation is carried out by the aerosol method of the respiratory tract of young birds after hatching, with simultaneous disinfection of indoor air with a finely dispersed 50% solution of iodotriethylene glycol at a rate of 1.3 ml / cu. m for 5 minutes followed by exposure of 15 minutes

Remediation is also allowed with other fungicidal drugs, according to the recommendations (instructions) for their use, which are registered in the Russian Federation. For the duration of aerosol treatments, the boxes with daily young animals are placed in a checkerboard pattern.

3.9.4. When disinfecting containers, vehicles, overalls, safety shoes, disinfection regimes are used as for spore forms of pathogens and dermatomycosis.

3.9.5. Litter is stored in piles on an isolated site for further disinfection using the biothermal method. With an active biothermal process, the shoulder can withstand at least 45 days. At an ambient temperature below 00 deg. C, when biothermal processes slow down, the period of disinfection is increased to 90 days.

3.9.6. Quarantine restrictions are removed from the farm (department, farm, poultry house) 3 months after the last case of the detection of a sick or suspicious bird disease, the final veterinary and sanitary measures (cleaning, disinfection and laboratory tests for the quality of disinfection, etc.).

3.9.7. When carrying out quarantine and sanitation measures in poultry farms unsuccessful for aspergillosis of birds and when disposing of a slaughtered sick bird (including its parts), measures are taken to prevent the spread of the disease.

3.10. When carrying out these measures when identifying the disease of bird aspergillosis and its prevention, it is necessary to pay attention to the safety precautions of staff during slaughter, plucking, development of carcasses and the like.

It is necessary to use personal protective equipment (respirators, protective clothing, footwear) that will prevent infections, and provide detergents and disinfectants. Overalls and safety shoes are disinfected in a paraformalin chamber.

3.10.1. Persons working with disinfectants must strictly adhere to the rules of personal hygiene. During the use of drugs that irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory organs, work is allowed only in gas masks or respirators and goggles, and when in contact with concentrated solutions it is necessary to use rubber gloves.

3.10.2. First-aid kits should have neutralizing solutions of disinfectants used in each individual case.

3.10.3. Do not smoke or eat while working with disinfectants. After disinfection of the face and hands, wash with warm water and soap.

What is this disease

Aspergillosis (pneumomycosis, pneumonia, mold mycosis) is an infectious disease caused by molds. All kinds of pets suffer from it.

A dangerous disease occurs with damage to the respiratory system and serous membranes of other organs (liver, intestinal tract, kidneys, spleen, central nervous system, etc.). People also have aspergillosis.

Causative agent of aspergillosis

The activator of the disease are molds of the genus Aspergillus, mainly belonging to the species Asp. fumigatus, the most common representative of aspergillus. These mushrooms contain toxic substances aflatoxins.

They live on the walls of rooms, where there is constant dampness, in places for feed of domestic animals, its food, litter, manure. The fungal mycelia can germinate in the grain, due to which the feed becomes an object of infection. In feeds, the resistance of the fungus to temperature and chemicals increases.

When storing wet food, hay, straw, they often heat up and debate, which favors the reproduction and growth of mushrooms. After complete drying, the dust consists only of spores of mushrooms. Aspergillus spores are extremely tenacious to chemical and physical action.

When the spores are swallowed, the body becomes infected, which leads to aspergillosis. Most often, poultry is infected by an alimentary route - in other words, mushrooms penetrate the body along with the food in which they are present. When inhaled spores, birds can also catch an infection, but this happens infrequently. The maximum vulnerability of chickens is observed in the incubation phase, when the probability of getting a jelly-like liquid with Aspergillus fumigatus on the shell is high.

Aspergillosis can occur in acute and sluggish form. Symptoms of the disease vary depending on age.

The disease is observed in young animals younger than 30 days of age, most often in acute form. The first signs appear on the third day after infection. Sometimes this period is reduced to 1 day or increases to 10 days. Sick chickens show slow development, they become lethargic and phlegmatic, stretch their neck up, breathe heavily and quickly, gulping air frantically, often sneeze, a foamy suspension may stand out from the nose. Basically, body temperature is normal. After 2-6 days, the bird dies.

The acute form is most often accompanied by:

  • shaky gait
  • muscle tremors
  • loss of appetite
  • unbalanced movements,
  • cramps
  • paralysis
  • paresis
  • blue scallop and earrings.

In adult chickens

The chronic form (namely, adults suffer from this form) is slow, and the symptoms are not so pronounced.

But it is possible to identify diseases by the following general signs:

  • nerve manifestations
  • diarrhea and constipation
  • growth retardation,
  • losing weight.

In the end, the bird dies.

What to do: how to treat aspergillosis

Diagnose the disease according to the results of epizootic (clinical) and laboratory tests. For advanced cases, treatment in veterinary medicine has not been developed. Sick individuals are isolated and then simply destroyed. However, when identifying the disease at an early stage, you can try to use various drugs to combat this fungus.

Iodine solution

Regular iodine also gives a good effect. To prepare the solution at the rate of 1 cubic meter. m take the following ingredients:

  • iodine in crystals - 9 g,
  • ammonium chloride - 1 g,
  • aluminum powder - 0.6 g,
  • heated water - 3-4 drops.

When components interact, iodine vapors are released that destructively affect pathogenic fungi. In addition, there is a disinfection of feed, air and bedding. Perform processing every 4-5 days.

Iodine Chloride

Processing is carried out by sublimation with aluminum powder (aluminum powder) or wire. Calculation of the drug - 0.5 ml per 1 cubic meter. m room. If the house does not have good sealing, this dosage is doubled. The drug is poured into containers (plastic or galvanized) and powder (1:30) or wire (1:20) is poured there. As a result, sublimation of iodine and vapor of hydrochloric acid occurs. Stand for 20-40 minutes, then ventilate the house. The room is treated with courses: 3 days after 3, until the symptoms of aspergillosis in birds are completely lost.

Iodotriethylene glycol

Also, veterinarians recommend treating the room with a highly dispersed solution of iodotriethylene glycol (50%). Dosage - 1.2-1.4 ml per 1 cubic meter. m. Aerate the air for 5 minutes with a further exposure of 15-20 minutes. The course is 5 days each with a break of 2 days.

The aerosol of 1% Berenil solution also proved to be quite good. It is sprayed indoors for 30-40 minutes, after which it is ventilated. The course of disinfection is 3-4 days.

Signs of Aspergillosis

In a chronic course, similar signs develop slowly, in addition to nerve symptoms, diarrhea and constipation are observed, the bird lags behind in growth and development, loses weight and dies.

The diagnosis of aspergillosis and aspergillotoxicosis is established on the basis of epizootological and laboratory studies. No specific treatment has been developed for aspergillosis or aspergillotoxicosis in birds. Sick birds are isolated and destroyed.

Harvesting bird feed

It is important to monitor compliance with the rules for the preparation, storage and feeding of grain waste, animal feed, bran and other feed, and to prevent dampness in the poultry rooms. Musty and moldy feed is boiled for 30-60 minutes at a temperature of 100 ° C.

To prevent infection of poultry in incubators, it is imperative to carry out control studies of the air and hatching eggs for contamination, and then the incubator is disinfected with formaldehyde vapor or aerosols of a 5% solution of hexachorophene in diethylene glycol (16 ml per 1 m3). With such aerosols, eggs are disinfected immediately after laying in the incubator, and hatched chickens - 1 hour before their removal from hatchery incubators (exposure in all cases is 30 minutes).

The danger of aspergillosis to humans

A person becomes infected with aspergillosis by inhalation of contaminated air with spores and the direct ingestion of fungal spores, less commonly through damaged skin and mucous membranes. Most often, the lungs are affected, less often - the skin, mucous membranes, organs of hearing and vision. A manifestation of an allergic reaction in the form of bronchial asthma is possible.

Prevention comes down to observing body and oral hygiene. In no case should you inhale dust contaminated with aspergillus in the foci of a bird disease, and if you feel unwell, you should consult a doctor.

What can not be done

In no case, with a surge in the disease, it is impossible:

  • move inventory, feed, birds between compartments (cages) within the farm,
  • leave the house unattended (individual personnel are set up for dysfunctional units),
  • remove hatching eggs for further hatching.

Safety measures and personal hygiene at work

When carrying out work on the disinfection of premises or during preventive measures, certain safety precautions should be observed:

  1. First of all, it is necessary to use personal protective equipment (respirators, face masks, protective clothing, gloves, safety shoes). They will help to avoid infection of the person himself. After processing, clothes and shoes are disinfected in a steam-formalin chamber.
  2. Observe personal hygiene. When using disinfectants, it is allowed to work exclusively in a gas mask, rubber gloves and goggles.
  3. You should always have neutralizing drugs in your medicine cabinet.
  4. Do not smoke or eat while working with disinfectants.
  5. After the event, wash your hands and face with warm water and soap.

Can a person get sick from a sick bird

Although many people consider aspergillosis a purely “animal” infection, a person can also become infected with this fungus. This happens when inhaled air is contaminated by spores, when the spores themselves are swallowed, or through damaged skin or mucous membranes.

In the human body, the fungus affects the skin, mucous membranes, eyes and hearing organs. There is an allergy in the form of bronchial asthma.

Reviews from the network

Note: The reaction is carried out only in glassware, the reaction proceeds with a large heat release. Plastic to melt.

Aspergillosis is an infectious disease caused by Aspergillus fungi, which affects the serous membranes and the respiratory system. Such a disease can occur in any pet.

As a rule, one of two forms of the disease occurs in poultry: Sharp. Such aspergillosis is characterized by strong outbreaks in young animals.

At the same time, morbidity and mortality are at a high level. Chronic. It is usually observed in adult breeding individuals.

It can also be whole houses and individual birds from an adult flock. The disease becomes chronic quite rarely. This happens when birds live in a confined space.

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