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LEATHER TWO-COLOR (Vespertilio murinus)

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A bit larger than the northern leather jacket. Body length 54 - 64 mm, forearm length 41 - 48 mm. Body weight 8 - 20 g. The color of the back is two-tone: light silver ends of the hair on a dark background. The belly is light. . . . . . .

Spread: The range of the species captures the forest, steppe and partly desert zones of Eurasia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific, north to 55 - 60 N, south to Iran, Afghanistan, Mongolia, Northern China, including mountainous regions. In the Middle Urals, it is very rare. It is possible that the northern border of the two-tone leather is passing through the territory of the region, but its exact location has not been established. Locations of finds in the region are shown on the map. In the Urals, it is found in the Perm region, in the Trans-Urals - in the vicinity of Tyumen. At the end of the last century I.Ya. Slovtsov observed two-tone leather in the vicinity of the Pelymsky prison (the modern village of Pelym, Garinsky district, Sverdlovsk region). In the 70s of the XX century, several individuals of two-tone leather were discovered by R.A. Malyshev in clusters of northern leathers in hollows of trees in the vicinity of Sverdlovsk. One individual was discovered by A. Ermakov in the Denezhkin Kamen nature reserve in the summer of 1998.

Living conditions: She arranges summer shelters in hollows, caves, rock crevices, in cavities behind a lagged tree bark, in attics, under the skin of houses, behind cornices. For the winter, it may fly south. Two small winters were discovered in the caves of Bashkiria and the Perm region. Probably winters in the caves of the Sverdlovsk region.

Number: Abundance data is fragmentary.

Security status: Not a protected species.

Activity: Flies for feeding shortly after sunset, feeds all night. The flight is fast and agile.

Nutrition: It feeds on mosquitoes, small bugs, nocturnal butterflies.

Breeding: In June, females give birth to 2 cubs.

Life expectancy, enemies, illness: Life expectancy of about 5 years.

Economic value: Destroys a large number of harmful insects.

Kazhan dvukalyarovy

all administrative districts of Belarus

Smooth-nosed family (Vespertilionidae).

A rare species of bats in Belarus (flying and migrating), however, occurs throughout the republic. In recent decades, the range has expanded towards Western Europe, but almost everywhere this species is rare. In addition, in these years, in many places of the range, including Belarus, there has been a significant decrease in the number of species. It is included in the IUCN lists as a rare, vulnerable species of Europe.

Wingspan 26-30 cm, body length 4.7-6.4 cm, tail 2.9-4.7 cm, ear 1.3-1.9 cm, forearms 3.9-4.8, weight 12- 16 g

The hairline of the back is high, thick, wavy, dark in color, with a clearly visible silver ripple. The bases of the hair are brown, sometimes from brown to light brown, and the ends are silver-white. In a general combination, the fur is brownish with a silver-fawn color. The abdomen is whitish or yellowish-cepoe and creates a very clear color contrast with the back.

The ear is relatively short, not narrowed in the upper part, its width is greater than the height. Ears and front part of muzzle are equally black-brown. The tragus is short, curved, knife-shaped and blunt at the end. The posterior outer edge of the ear in the lower part extends horizontally in the form of a hairless roller of thick skin, which falls below the oral gap. The wings are relatively narrow. The flying membrane is dark brown. The epiblema is narrow, with a transverse bone septum. The last vertebra (tail end) freely protrudes from the caudal membrane by 3.5-5 mm. Teeth 32-34.

Females of two-tone leather on the sides of the chest, almost in the axillary region, have 4 nipples, in contrast to other European species having 2 nipples.

The peak frequency of ultrasonic signals of normal flight is 24-26 kHz. The voice (in the detector) resembles a late leather, but gurgling sounds at a slower rhythm and are more prolonged.

Under the conditions of Belarus, two-tone leather is not a typical synanthropus and does not form stable settlements outside the boundaries of settlements. An important distinguishing feature of this species is the preference of the outskirts of rural settlements near canals, small rivers, ponds. Of the more than 50 places of registration, all, with one exception (Minsk), relate specifically to rural areas.

Two-tone leather appears in Belarus in the second half of May, while females arrive earlier than males. Summer shelters are located under the eaves, shutters, window frames, behind the wooden paneling, very rarely - in the hollows of trees. Shelters are populated by females in the second decade of May, by males in the second decade of June. Often lives in common shelters with other species of bats.

Hunting flights of two-tone leather begin a little later than Vespers and bat, shortly after sunset. The flight is fast, maneuverable. Unlike our other species, hunting outside water bodies, leather likes to hunt over completely open terrain - wastelands, fields, cemeteries. Hunts all night, but intermittently. Very sensitive to night cooling. In cool or inclement weather, he sits in a shelter.

The basis of the diet of two-tone leather is composed of Lepidoptera (moths, leafworms, fireworms, hawks, scoops, etc.) and coleopterans (weevils, barbel). In Central Europe, caddis flies, butterflies, two-winged and retina-winged birds are the main food source for two-tone leather. A more accurate study showed that this skin readily eats mosquito-centipedes, bells, mushroom mosquitoes. In Europe, it is reported that two-tone leather actively preys on swarming insects in the surface layer.

Maternal colonies are formed from several females, in rare cases 40-50. Mixed colonies with females of other species are very characteristic of this species: forest bat and dwarf bat. Males usually live separately: singly or in small groups, sometimes large ones - up to 60 or more individuals. After the transition of young people to an independent life, a strict separation of the sexes is not observed.

In June-July, females give birth, as a rule, to twins, less often - 1 calf. Newborn goals are blind and helpless. The cubs grow very quickly, and by the end of the first week their mass is almost doubled, the previously wrinkled auricles rise, acquiring a normal appearance. In the third week, the change of milk teeth to permanent ends and the ability to fly is acquired. Colonies with young animals are easily detected by quiet, but quite intense circling. Even in normal weather years, an increased mortality rate is observed in two-color leather colonies. It reaches 30-40% and this is the highest rate among bats in Belarus.

Like other species of bats, two-tone leather is very attached to its shelters, occupying them every year always at about the same time.

The mating period begins from the end of July and lasts an unusually long time - until the autumn migration season, i.e., until October. During mating, 1, and sometimes 2 males find a permanent shelter. At night, near this shelter, the male actively flies in a circle with a diameter of 300-400 m and calls the females with intense sounds. These mating sounds are clearly audible without instruments, which is the only example among Belarusian bats. Sounds resemble loud circling with a rhythm of 5-6 seconds. As a result of these calls, temporary harems of up to 10 females are formed simultaneously.

In September, this species already disappears from the territory of Belarus, flies away for wintering in the western and, probably, in the southern directions. The maximum recorded flight distance of this species is 1440 km.

The maximum life span is 12 years.

1. Demyanchik V. T., Demyanchik M. G. "Bats of Belarus: a guide-determinant." Brest, 2000.216s.

2. Kurskov A. N., Demyanchik V. T., Demyanchik M. G. "Two-tone leather" / Beasts: Popular Encyclopedic Reference (Animal World of Belarus). Minsk, 2003. S.147-149

3. Burko L. D., Grichik V. V. "Vertebrate animals of Belarus". Minsk, 2003. -373s.

4. Sergean I. N. "Mammals of Belarus". 2nd Edition. Minsk, 1961. -321s.

5. Savitsky B. P. Kuchmel S. V., Burko L. D. "Mammals of Belarus". Minsk, 2005. -319s.

Description

Their twittering challenge, similar to that of a bird, should be heard especially in the fall during the mating season. The motley bat has a body size of 4.8-6.4 cm (1.9-2.5 inches) with a wingspan of 26-33 cm (10-13 inches) and a weight of 11-24 g (0.39-0.85 ounces). Its name comes from its fur, which has two colors. Its back (dorsal side) is red to dark brown in color, with silver-white-matte hair. The ventral side is white or gray. The ears, wings and face are black or dark brown. The wings are narrow. The ears are short, wide and rounded. The highest known age is 12 years.

Behavior

These bats prey on prey, such as mosquitoes, caddis flies and moths, with a wide range of ultrasonic sounds, but especially around 25-27 kHz. They hunt after dusk to a height of about 20-40 meters (66-131 feet), for example, in the open area above streams and lakes and above the forest or on street lamps. In cold weather, the bat may remain in a resting place.

There is not much known about the behavior of motley bats, since they are quite rare. Female bats live in small groups, about 50 animals, sometimes up to several hundred adult females. In Western Europe, male groups consist of about 250 animals and are found only during spring and early summer. These bats migrate, and flights up to 900 kilometers (560 miles) have been found. Further migration was identified at 1,780 km (1,110 miles).

Between October and March, bats hibernate. They hibernate alone, and can withstand temperatures up to -5 ° C (23 ° F).

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